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Jay Z  

Hua Hsu

hip-hop artist and record executive, was born Shawn Corey Carter in Brooklyn, New York, the fourth child of Adnes Reeves and Gloria Carter, of whom little is known. Reeves abandoned the family when Shawn was eleven. It has been suggested that Reeves left because of despondency over the fatal stabbing of his younger brother, though Carter himself did not learn this until he and his father reconciled, shortly before Reeves's death in 2003 A single mother Gloria Carter raised Shawn and his siblings in the Marcy Houses housing project in the rough Bedford Stuyvesant section of Brooklyn At a young age Carter demonstrated musical talent and became fascinated with hip hop culture He was given the nickname Jazzy which would eventually evolve into his stage name Jay Z The name held two meanings it was an homage to one of his early musical mentors a smalltime rapper ...



Jennifer A. Bratyanski

rapper and business mogul. Shawn Corey Carter grew up quickly in the shadows of the Marcy Housing Projects of Brooklyn, New York. His parents Gloria Carter and Adnes Reeves split up when Jay-Z was a teenager, leaving him and his three siblings vulnerable to the urban environment of New York. His father's departure left the teenage Jay-Z free to explore the streets for an alternative family structure. He found his way into the dangerous world of crack cocaine and became, as he later stated in an interview in Rolling Stone, addicted to hustling. His moniker “Jay-Z” reportedly derives from combining an early nickname with the name of a subway line that traverses Queens, Brooklyn, and Manhattan.

His successes as a hustler translated into his earliest rap lyrics, which eventually became his first album, the widely acclaimed Reasonable Doubt. The album was released in 1996 by Roc ...


Ayesha Kanji

entrepreneur, music executive, and promoter, was born in Queens, New York, to Daniel and Evelyn Simmons, both graduates of Howard University in Washington, D.C. Simmons's father was a politically active schoolteacher who worked for the New York Board of Education; his mother was an artist and recreation director for the New York City Department of Parks. Simmons had two brothers; his older brother, Danny, became an artist, while his younger brother, Joey, became the rap artist popularly known as “Run” (Reverend Run) of the music group Run-D.M.C. Simmons and his brothers grew up in the middle-class Queens neighborhood of Hollis attending integrated schools in the politically charged 1960s and were influenced by their father s social activism protesting racial discrimination and promoting black empowerment Simmons s mother encouraged him to embrace both the arts and entrepreneurship but despite his sound upbringing and his ...


Robert Farrell

entrepreneur in the entertainment and fashion industries. Simmons is one of the most influential African American entrepreneurs to arise out of the late twentieth century hip-hop culture. Starting as a manager of early hip-hop artists and cofounder of Def Jam Records, Simmons has since developed ventures in television, fashion, and film, and he has done much to make hip hop a mainstream part of contemporary cultural and economic life.

Simmons was born in Jamaica, Queens, New York, to middle-class, college-educated parents, both of whom worked for the City of New York. In 1965, the Simmons family moved to Hollis, Queens, a solidly middle-class neighborhood that began to decline as the use of heroin spread through New York in the 1970s. In 1975 the ambitious and highly style conscious Simmons began to attend the City College of New York which provided him with a social network connected to the ...