1-8 of 8 results  for:

  • Foreign Military Officer x
  • 1775–1800: The American Revolution and Early Republic x
  • Government and Politics x
Clear all

Article

Jeremy Rich

political, military, and religious leader and first Caliph of the Sokoto Caliphate, was born in the town of Morona, now located in Niger, in 1780 or 1781. His father was the revolutionary Islamic cleric and leader Uthman Dan Fodio (1754–1817), and his mother was Hawwa bint Adam ibn Muhammad Agh. Bello received an advanced education in Islamic theology and law thanks to his father, and supported his father’s call for a strict adherence to orthodox Sunni interpretations of Islamic practices. Bello praised his father as a loving parent: “His face was relaxed and his manner gentle. He never tired of explaining and never became impatient if anyone failed to understand” (Boyd, 1989).

When Uthman Dan Fodio launched a series of holy wars against the nominally Islamic sultans of Hausa cities such as Kano in northern Nigeria and southern Niger Bello became an active lieutenant of his father ...

Article

Marixa Lasso

known as “the Liberator,” in Venezuela, Colombia, and elsewhere in Latin America, was born on 24 July 1783 in Caracas, Venezuela. He was the son of doña María de la Concepción Palacios y Blanco and don Juan Vicente Bolívar y Ponte. Both parents died while he was a young boy, and he was raised by an uncle. His mother was descended from a family in the Canary Islands, and his father was of Basque descent. The Bolívar family had been in the Americas for seven generations and was a prominent and wealthy family of slave and plantations owners. This wealth and status gave Bolívar access to the best education available, as well as the opportunity to spend part of his formative years in Europe.

Bolívar first traveled to Europe when he was 15 years old. He returned again as a young widower, in 1803 During his second trip he ...

Article

Simón Bolívar was born to a family of wealthy cacao plantation landholders who owned many slaves. Educated by private tutors in Caracas and Spain, Bolívar was profoundly influenced by the thinkers of the European Enlightenment, in particular the liberal ideas of French philosopher Jean-Jacques Rousseau, as well as by the American Revolution (1775–1783), and the French Revolution (1789–1799).

With the news of Napoleon Bonaparte's invasion of Spain in 1808, and the consequent political weakness of the Spanish rulers in Madrid, Bolívar and other elite criollos (Creoles, people of European descent born in the Americas) started to organize local juntas (councils) in order to replace the colonial government. In 1810, with Commander Francisco de Miranda he led a revolt against the Spanish forces in Venezuela Some historians say that Miranda and Bolívar wanted to take power from the European colonizers ...

Article

David Owusu-Ansah

Asante royal servant and military leader, led expeditions in Gyaaman in 1817–1818 and against the Danes and their local allies in the Accra Plains (in present-day Ghana) in 1826.

Opoku Frefre was born at the village of Anyatiase that belonged to the Oyoko Abohyen Stool of Kumasi. There is no information about Opoku Frefre’s father, but his mother is identified as one Ama Nyaako Pakyi. In the Asante Collective Biographical Project (1979 the historians Ivor Wilks and Thomas McCaskie identified Opoku Frefre s three wives as Abena Twewaa of Kumasi Apirade Abena Aninwaa of Kumasi Apentansa and Ama Nifa of Adwoko Buoho By these marriages Opoku Frefre fathered sixty three sons and an unknown number of daughters one of whom was said to have become a favorite wife of Asantehene Osei Tutu Kwame d 1823 Opoku Frefre served the Golden Stool of Asante in both civil and ...

Article

Hamidou  

Stephen Cory

North African corsair and commander of the Algerian fleet during the era of the Napoleonic Wars, was noteworthy for temporarily restoring the waning prosperity and influence of the Algerine corsairs. However, his exploits represented the last great achievements of this feared group. He was eventually killed in 1815 during a surprise attack by a squadron led by the American captain Stephen Decatur. Fifteen years later, Algeria itself would fall to French conquest, bringing the great era of the so-called Barbary corsairs to a sudden end.

From the sixteenth century the Ottoman regencies of Algiers Tunis and Tripoli along with the short lived Moroccan city state of Salé operated corsair enterprises as part of the holy war against the Europeans The corsair ships originally functioned independently under the leadership of commanders like Uruj and Khayr al Din Barbarossa in Algiers and Tunis and Muhammad al Ayyashi in Rabat Salé Their crews ...

Article

Andries Wilhelmus Jacobus Pretorious grew up in what is now Eastern Cape province and took part in the border war with the Xhosa from 1834 to 1836 . He then led a Boer (Afrikaner) exploratory party into Natal in eastern South Africa in 1836. This trip was a prelude to leading a group of Boers called Voortrekkers on a migration called the Great Trek from the Cape Colony into the northern part of South Africa. Following the massacre of another Great Trek leader, Pieter Retief, and his followers by Zulu chief Dingane in February 1838, Pretorius returned to Natal, where he was made commander of a large Afrikaner force of 500 men and fifty-seven wagons. He led them across the mountains into Dingane’s territory to avenge Retief by defeating the Zulu warriors at the Battle of Blood River on December 16 1838 Pretorius then ...

Article

Joy Elizondo

Domingo Sosa, born in Buenos Aires, joined Argentina's military in 1808 and remained in the service for his entire career. After returning from service in the sixth Infantry, he was assigned to duty as a drill instructor in the Argentine Auxiliaries, an all-black regiment. In 1828 Sosa was called up for service in the all-black fourth Militia Battalion, where he would remain for seventeen years, fighting in both the Indian wars of the 1820s and civil wars of the 1830s.

The next stage in Sosa's career came in 1845, when Juan Manuel Rosas Argentine dictator in the 1830s and 1840s named him colonel and granted him command of the Provisional Battalion After the demise of Rosas s federalist regime Sosa remained in Argentina s succeeding Unitarian government maintaining both his rank and command of his troops Sosa was later appointed national representative to the legislature for ...

Article

Faustin Elie Soulouque was elected president of Haiti by the National Assembly, under the belief that he could be easily manipulated. On the contrary, Soulouque established a strong and repressive regime. In 1849 he unsuccessfully attempted an invasion of the neighboring Dominican Republic which had won its independence from ...