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Elisa Larkin Nascimento

whose full name was Aguinaldo de Oliveira Camargo, was probably born around 1916 in the midsize city of Campinas, São Paulo State, Brazil, where he was raised from early infancy. He had access to an education of exceptional quality for a black child, at Salesian institutions following the philosophy of the Italian Catholic educator Don Bosco. He obtained his degree in agronomy early in life and became respected in the field, traveling to various states on research missions. As a youth, he was friends with Geraldo Campos de Oliveira, who had moved with his family to Campinas from Franca, where they were close to the family of the black activist Abdias do Nascimento. Visiting his friend Geraldo Campos de Oliveira, Nascimento met Aguinaldo Camargo in Campinas, where racial segregation was common in clubs, movie houses, and public places. The three young men organized the Afro-Campineiro Congress in 1938 bringing ...

Article

Norman Weinstein

Born Peter McIntosh, Tosh's entrance into music began during his teenage years in the Trenchtown ghetto of Kingston, where he and his friends Bob Marley and Bunny Wailer imitated the vocal harmonies of Curtis Mayfield. Tosh's early recordings as part of a Ska/Reggae trio with Marley and Wailer (who became known as “The Wailers”) made clear that his singing and songwriting talents were strongly flavored by rage against hypocritical individuals and institutions. Songs like “400 Years” and “Downpressor” are prime examples of his mastery of political protest songwriting. His first recordings as a solo artist in the early 1960s include a wry commentary on sexual mores (“Shame and Scandal”) and a boastful declaration of Rastafarian identity (“Rasta Shook Them Up”).

After quitting The Wailers in 1972 Tosh pursued a performing and recording career as a solo artist marked by the cultivation of a persona ...