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Frank R. Levstik

Thomas J. Ferguson was born on September 15, 1830, in Essex County, Virginia, the son of freeborn parents of mixed blood. Little is known of his early years, but it is recorded that by the 1850s he resided in Cincinnati, Ohio. There, Ferguson became an active member of the Masonic order, serving as junior warden of the Cincinnati lodge in 1859 and 1860. During 1859 he moved to Albany, in Athens County, Ohio, where he became a landowner and enrolled as a student at the integrated Albany Manual Labor University. Four years later, he was a leader in establishing the Albany Enterprise Academy in Ohio. Ferguson served on the first board of trustees of the school.

The Enterprise Academy opened its doors to students in 1864, following an appropriation from the Freedmen's Bureau and private gifts from individuals such as Union general Otis Oliver Howard ...


Mamie E. Locke

social worker and clubwoman, was born in Ocala, Florida, the daughter of Charles McCoy and Mamie Ellis. She grew up in Chicago, where her mother moved after her parents divorced in 1903. Beginning in 1905 she attended the Fisk University Normal School in Nashville, Tennessee, from which she graduated in 1910.

Returning to Chicago after her graduation, McCoy could not find work as a teacher because of racism. She engaged in the kind of drudgework most black women were able to find at that time: laundry and cleaning, earning as little as five dollars per week. In 1914 she married Harris B. Gaines, a Chicago lawyer; they had two sons. She returned to school in 1918, studying social work at the University of Chicago until 1921. She eventually did further study at Loyola University's School of Social Administration from 1935 to 1937 ...


Linda Chavers

secretary of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, women's and civil rights activist, and campaigner against misogynistic lyrics in rap music, was born Cynthia DeLores Nottage in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, the tenth of eleven children of the Reverend Whitfield Nottage, a minister, and Captilda Gardiner, a businesswoman. Because Tucker's father, an immigrant from the Bahamas, did not accept a salary from the churches that employed him, it was left to Tucker's mother, whom Tucker later described as a “Christian feminist,” to provide for the family (Washington Post, 13 Oct. 2005 She did so by starting an employment agency for Southern black migrants to Philadelphia running grocery stores and investing in real estate Tucker s socially conservative parents did not allow her or her siblings to listen to popular music go to dances or date before the age of twenty one Tucker spent much of her ...