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Hilary Jones

the first black African elected to Senegal’s seat in the Chamber of Deputies of the French National Assembly, was born to a family of domestic workers who served the métis (mulatto) and French elite. His father, Niokhar Diagne, came from the Serer ethnic group and worked as a cook. His mother, Gnagna Preira, worked as a domestic. She traced her maternal lineage to the Lebou population of Rufisque and her paternal line to the Afro-Portuguese of today’s Guinea-Bissau. While a distant ancestor may have been Portuguese, the family never considered themselves métis, and Diagne always presented himself as purely African. The Diagne family, like other Senegalese of Gorée, attended the Catholic Church on the island and sent their son to the local primary school run by the Catholic order.

Born in 1872 on Gorée Island Diagne entered a world shaped by the expansion of French imperialism in Senegal s ...


Don Flynn

Right‐wing Conservative politician whose inflammatory speeches increased popular support for anti‐immigration policies and led to his sacking from the Shadow Cabinet.

Despite his later prominence, John Enoch Powell was a relative latecomer to race and immigration politics in the United Kingdom. The trailblazers for controls on ‘coloured’ immigration were active from 1954 onwards, led in Parliament by Cyril Osbourne, the MP for Louth, Lincolnshire—a region that in his day had virtually no black immigrants. Though active in Parliament from 1950, Powell made no grand pronouncements in support of immigration restrictions until 1964.

Following on from his careers as Professor of Greek at Sydney University and during the Second World War a brigadier in the British Army in India Powell entered politics after the war in the role of staunch defender of the British Empire Seeking a position in the Conservative Party s research department he described himself ...


Robert Fay

Born at Cape Coast in 1864, John Mensah Sarbah (also known as Kofi Mensah) was the first son of John and Sarah Sarbah. He attended the Cape Coast Wesleyan School and the Taunton School in England. Sarbah studied law at Lincoln’s Inn in London and in 1887 was the first Gold Coast African admitted to the bar.

Upon his return to Cape Coast, Sarbah established a successful law practice. He considered the traditional political institutions of the Gold Coast basically democratic in nature, and devoted his legal expertise to modernizing these institutions and integrating them into the colony’s legal apparatus. At the same time, he fought for laws protecting Africans from colonial oppression and exploitation. Among his many accomplishments, Sarbah, with the help of Joseph Casely-Hayford, succeeded in defeating the Lands Bill of 1897 which would have ignored traditional property rights and allowed the British government to dispose ...


Raymond Suttner

leading South African communist and antiapartheid activist, was treated by the apartheid regime as its key enemy. At the same time he had a heroic image among the oppressed black majority as a white person totally dedicated to liberation.

Slovo, whose birth name was Yossel Mashel, was born into poverty in Obel, a village in Lithuania, the son of Yiddish-speaking parents, who were isolated from the Lithuanian community by their language and by anti-Semitism. His father left Obel when Joe was two years old to find a better environment. Settling in Johannesburg, South Africa, as a fruit hawker, it was six years before the father could send for his family. Joe arrived in 1936 then ten years old According to his daughter Gillian the Slovo family were on the lowest rung of the newly arrived Jewish community but the color of their skin opened a world of opportunity denied ...