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Article

Huel D. Perkins

Joseph Samuel Clark was born in Bienville Parish near Sparta, Louisiana, the son of Phillip and Jane Clark. His early schooling occurred near his birthplace, through the assistance of whites, while he maintained his share of the family responsibilities. Between 1891 and 1895, Clark studied in the preparatory department of Coleman College, Gibsland, Louisiana, working his way through school. He matriculated at Bishop College in Marshall, Texas, but received no degree. From 1896 to 1901 he attended Leland College in New Orleans, Louisiana, from which he received a B.A. degree in 1901. Additional studies resulted in an M.A. from Selma University in Alabama (1913) and honorary Ph.D. degrees from Leland College, Louisiana, (1914) and Arkansas Baptist College (1921). He did postgraduate study at Harvard University, in Massachusetts, and the University of Chicago, in Illinois.

Clark involved himself in several organizations ...

Article

Thomas D. Pawley

Born October 31, 1870, on a farm in Oktibbeha County, Mississippi, 10 km (6 mi) south of Starkville, Gandy was the fifth of thirteen children born to Horace and Mary (Goodwin) Gandy, freed slaves and tenant farmers. His paternal grandfather, Ed Gandy, had come to the United States from Ireland following the potato famine of the 1830s, settling first in South Carolina, later in Alabama, and finally in Mississippi. His maternal grandmother was of mixed French, Native American, and black origin. Given the middle name Mumphis, which he disliked, he later changed it to Manuel. His mother, whose gentle nature contrasted with his father's, exerted a great influence on him.

Like so many other blacks during this period Horace and Mary Gandy were trapped by the economic servitude imposed on them by the tenant farmer system In an effort to escape the unending cycle of debt ...

Article

Lois Massengale Schultz

community activist, was born Jane Roberta Whatley in Hayneville, Lowndes County, Alabama, the eighth child and only girl of fifteen children born to Minerva Kendall Whatley and Calvin Whatley, a sharecropper and laborer. At an early age Jane worked to help support the family, and by the age of sixteen she was selling insurance for the Atlanta Mutual Benefit Association.

Summers's lifelong commitment to helping others was instilled at an early age by her parents, who had been born into slavery. A family story passed down through the generations had an enormous impact on young Jane. Relatives told how her father, Calvin, at the age of five carried water to his enslaved father, Simon, who had been beaten, tied to a tree, and left to die. Simon was subjected to this torturous punishment because he had protested the master's sexual abuse of his wife.

In 1922 ...