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Audra J. Wolfe

protozoologist and microscopist, was born in Palatka, Florida, the son of Lugenia Bryant and Eugene Finley. As a high school student at Central Academy in Palatka, Finley played trumpet for Al Osgood's Hot Five, a local jazz band.

In 1928 he completed a BS in Biology at Morehouse College in Atlanta, Georgia, before moving to Madison, Wisconsin, to pursue graduate work in zoology under the direction of Lowell E. Noland. Although he would eventually return to Madison to finish his PhD, financial pressures forced Finley to leave the university with his master's in 1929. He married Eva Elizabeth Browning on 30 August that same year. They had two children, Harold Eugene and Eva Kathleen.

Finley's teaching career began in the biology department at West Virginia State College, where he served first as an instructor and later as associate professor. In 1938 he returned to ...

Article

Kate Tuttle

Just was one of the most respected scientists and teachers of his time. Only four years old when his father died, he and his siblings moved with their widowed mother, Mary, from Charleston, South Carolina, to James Island, a nearby Gullah community. There his mother worked in the phosphate fields—typically a man's job—and taught school. Before long, she founded a school in the community, as well as a church, and led local farmers into cooperative business ventures.

Just grew up in an atmosphere permeated by his mother's love of learning and by the natural beauty of James Island. Once he had exhausted the local educational opportunities, his mother helped send him to Kimball Union, a preparatory school in New Hampshire. Arriving in 1900 Just the school s only black student found a rich learning environment and a warm social one He edited the school s yearbook studied classics and ...

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Kenneth R. Manning

zoologist, was born in Charleston, South Carolina, the son of Charles Fraser Just, a carpenter and wharf builder, and Mary Mathews Cooper. Following his father's death in 1887, his mother moved the family to James Island, off the South Carolina coast. There she labored in phosphate mines, opened a church and a school, and mobilized farmers into a moss-curing enterprise. A dynamic community leader, she was the prime mover behind the establishment of a township—Maryville—named in her honor. Maryville served as a model for all-black town governments elsewhere.

Just attended his mother's school, the Frederick Deming Jr. Industrial School, until the age of twelve. Under her influence, he entered the teacher-training program of the Colored Normal, Industrial, Agricultural and Mechanical College (now South Carolina State College) in Orangeburg, South Carolina, in 1896. After graduating in 1899 he attended Kimball Union Academy in Meriden New ...

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Steven J. Niven

zoologist, was born in Clifton Forge, Virginia, to parents whose names have not been recorded. When she was a child, Young's family moved to Burgettstown, Pennsylvania. In 1916, when she was seventeen, Young entered Howard University in Washington, D.C., to study music. In what would prove to be a recurrent pattern in Young's life, she studied hard and long but struggled to achieve high or even passing grades. In 1921, however, she took her first science course, with the head of Howard's zoology department Ernest Everett Just, who encouraged her to pursue a career in science after her graduation in 1923.

Young remained at Howard where she was appointed assistant professor of zoology and began working as a research assistant for Just while also studying on a part time basis in the summer for a master s degree at the University of Chicago In ...

Article

Amy M. Hay

In a profession notoriously inhospitable to African Americans, the life and career of the zoologist Roger Arliner Young showed both the achievement of professional respect and the severe obstacles black women faced as scientific researchers and teachers.

Young attended the University of Pennsylvania and received her PhD in Zoology in 1940, one of a handful of advanced degrees awarded to black women in the sciences before that decade. Despite financial worries, academic pressures, and little institutional stability, Young participated as a researcher at the world-renowned Marine Biological Laboratory in Woods Hole, Massachusetts, and was published in the prestigious journal Science in 1924.

Born in Clifton Forge, Virginia, Young grew up in Burgettstown, Pennsylvania, and attended public schools there. She first went to Howard University in 1916 to study music and took her first zoology class in 1921. Her teacher for this class, Dr Ernest Everett Just ...