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E. J. Alagoa

Nigerian student leader, teacher, policeman, and revolutionary, was born in the Niger Delta Region community of in Oloibiri, on 10 September 1938. He was the son of Jasper Pepple Boro, a schoolmaster at Kaiama in the Kolokuma-Opokuma district of Bayelsa State in present-day Nigeria. He took the name Adaka, meaning “lion,” when he began his revolutionary campaign to create an independent Niger Delta Republic and secede from Nigeria in 1966. The movement was crushed by the Nigerian armed forces in only twelve days.

Born in Oloibiri, the community near which oil was first discovered and exploited in the Niger Delta, Boro became more and more agitated by the neglect that his Ijaw people (also known as Izon or Ijo) suffered from the federal government of Nigeria after the country gained independence from Britain in 1960 The Izon were possibly the most vociferous group expressing fear of ...


Cheryl Sterling

Eduardo Chivambo Mondlane, the first president of the Front for the Liberation of Mozambique (FRELIMO), was born in June 1920 in a village in the district of Manjacase, in the Gaza province of Southern Mozambique. Mondlane was the fourth of sixteen sons. His father, Nwadjahane Mussengane Mondlane, a local ruler among the Tsonga peoples, died before he was two years old. His mother, Makungu Muzamusse Bembele, was his father’s third and last wife. Mondlane credits her as the source of both his informal and formal education, as she was the one to teach him about their history and ancestry, and enroll him in the local government school in Manjacase.

At thirteen, he transferred to a mission school closer to his home. After his mother died, his sister helped him with his education. By age sixteen, in 1936 he finished his rudimentary education and traveled to Lourenço Marques now ...


Curt Johnson

Mozambican nationalist and anticolonial leader, was born in June 1920 in Manjacaze, Gaza Province, Mozambique. His father was a local chief, and Mondlane remembered herding cattle as a child. His mother, early on, emphasized his education, and he attended a primary school run by the Swiss Mission, which had a strong influence on his political development. He taught himself English and managed to obtain a place in a secondary school in North Transvaal, South Africa. He next attended Witwatersrand University. In 1948– 1949, he was among the founders of NESAM (Núcleo dos Estudantes Africanos Secundários de Moçambique), an anticolonial cultural-political organization for Mozambican youth. His activities in NESAM led to his expulsion from South Africa and first encounters with the police on his return to Mozambique.

Through the intercession of American church groups Mondlane traveled to Portugal where he again ran afoul of the Portuguese secret police as a ...