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Phillip Luke Sinitiere

As part of an extended trip to Europe and the Mediterranean world, Frederick Douglass visited Egypt in 1886. Though his time in Africa was short, Douglass often thought, wrote, and spoke about the importance of Africa to blacks in nineteenth-century America. As shaped by nineteenth-century American Christianity, Romanticism, the Enlightenment, and scientific inquiry, Douglass's thoughts about and relation to Africa were filtered primarily through ethnology. In a July 1854 address at Western Reserve College in Ohio, "The Claims of the Negro Ethnologically Considered," Douglass displayed some of his most important thoughts on the relationship between culture, race, and black American identity with Africa.

Douglass summarized two major nineteenth-century theories surrounding race and human origins: Polygenesis, championed by the American ethnologist Samuel G. Morton, posited that races originated separately and thus formed separate species. Monogenesis, supported by the British physician Robert Gordon Latham espoused a unitary origin of ...


Laura Tabili

Indian and Caribbean workers employed in British shipping from the early 19th century.

1.Who were the Lascars?

2.Pay and conditions

3.Black seamen in British ships

4.Racial and gender divisions in maritime labour

5.Lascars, black seamen, and the National Union of Seamen



Evaristus Okechukwu Ekwueme

Timbuktu, in northern Mali, was an autonomous religious and intellectual Songhay city of lovers of wisdom and manuscripts. Even before UNESCO declared it a World Heritage site in 1970 there had been discoveries of medieval African manuscripts in the Tamashek Bambara Fulani Songhai and Arabic languages a testimony of Africans thirst for learning The scholarship of the city is expressed by a Sudanese proverb according to which salt comes from the north gold from the south and silver from the country of the white men but the word of God and the treasure of wisdom are only to be found in Timbuctoo Dubois p 276 A Timbuktu scholar is justified in saying that the holymen of this city were not surpassed in piety by the companions of the Prophet Dubois p 276 A Timbuktu jurist Ahmed al Bakay wrote that the fact that Allah is all powerful does not ...