religious and educational leader, was born to a family of chiefs in the town of Rusengo in eastern Burundi. The names and occupations of his parents are not known. He attended primary school in Rusengo from 1927 to 1933 and completed his secondary education at the Mugera seminary from 1933 to 1939. Barakana then decided to complete his theological training to become a Roman Catholic priest. He underwent training at the seminary in Nyakibanda from 1939 to 1947 and was ordained on 25 July 1947. Soon afterward, he went to the Vatican to study for a doctorate in canon law, which he received in 1950. Barakana thus became the first Burundian to ever receive a doctorate. Barakana decided to join the Jesuit Catholic religious order and officially became a member of this order on 20 May 1953 at Djuma in the Democratic Republic of the Congo ...
tribal leader and leader of resistance to French domination in Mauritania, was born on 10 February 1831 in the Hawd region, in present-day eastern Mauritania. His father was Muhammad Fadil, founder of the fadiliyya Sufi order. Until the age of 28, Maʾ al-ʿAynayn remained with his father, who was his only teacher in the esoteric and the exoteric. At the end of his education, his father gave him permission to undertake his first voyage. Maʾ al-ʿAynayn traveled to a number of holy places, including Mecca. Having returned from his pilgrimage, he began searching for a propitious place to settle down; and his choice became the Sagiya al-Hamraʾ region in what is today Western Sahara.
Maʾ al-ʿAynayn, who lived in a tent until the beginning of the 1880s, decided to found an urban center; and in 1888 he undertook the construction of the city of Smara which he wanted to ...