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James R. Grossman

politician, was born in Malta, Illinois, the son of William Jackson and Sarah Cooper. He spent most of his childhood in Chicago. At age nine he began selling newspapers and shining shoes in Chicago's central business district; he left school in the eighth grade to work full-time. By age eighteen Robert had garnered an appointment as a clerk in the post office, a position coveted by African Americans in this era because of its security compared to that of most other occupations open to them. He left the postal service as an assistant superintendent in 1909 to devote himself full-time to his printing and publishing business, the Fraternal Press. In partnership with Beauregard F. Mosely, in 1910 he cofounded the Leland Giants, Chicago's first African American baseball team. In 1912 Jackson won election as a Republican to the state legislature From there he moved to the ...


Charles Rosenberg

mortician, publisher, and California state legislator, was born in Harris Station, Ohio, near Chillicothe, the son of Andrew Jackson Roberts and Ellen Wayles Hemmings Roberts. His mother was a granddaughter of Sally Hemmings and U.S. president Thomas Jefferson; Sally Hemmings's father, who was also the father of Jefferson's wife Martha, was named Wayles.

Roberts's sister Myrtle Estelle was born in 1886 in Ohio, but by the time his brother William was born in 1889, the family had moved to Los Angeles, California. In 1894 they lived at 606 East Fifth Street. His father was cofounder and owner, and sometimes driver, of the Los Angeles Van, Truck, and Storage Company. In 1910 they lived at 1331 Wall Street where their neighbors were a mix of skilled blue collar workers a teacher a police officer and an elevator boy all classified by the census ...