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Chandra M. Miller

dentist and politician, was born into slavery in North Carolina and was known as Samuel Nixon before his escape from bondage in 1855. Nothing is known about his parents. He was sold several times before being purchased by C. F. Martin, a dentist in Norfolk, Virginia. As Martin's slave, Nixon learned sufficient dentistry to serve as the doctor's assistant and to make dental house calls. He also developed bookkeeping skills and monitored the doctor's accounts.

In Norfolk, Nixon became involved with the Underground Railroad. Befriending the captains of many of the schooners sailing in and out of Norfolk, he often convinced them to hide fugitive slaves aboard ship and carry them north, usually to Philadelphia or to New Bedford, Massachusetts. After conducting many other slaves through the Underground Railroad, Nixon decided to become a passenger himself in March 1855 He and three other slaves disguised themselves and ...


Rosetta E. Ross

Underground Railroad conductor, abolitionist, spy and scout, and social reformer, was born Araminta Ross in Dorchester County on Maryland's Eastern Shore, one of nine children, to slave parents Harriet Green and Ben Ross. She took her mother's name, Harriet, around 1844. This was also about the time she married John Tubman, a free black of about thirty-two years in age. The couple had no children.

The black community in which Harriet grew up comprised a mix of free and slave, skilled and unskilled people who married one another and formed interconnected, extended families. Freedmen and slaves worked together in the fields, swamps, forests, and canals. Harriet's father worked as a skilled slave, cutting and hauling timber for his master, Anthony Thompson, a lumber supplier for the area's shipbuilding industry. A favorite of Thompson's, Ross eventually won his freedom in 1840 by ...


For information on:

Uprisings and rebellions in Latin America: See Berbice Slave Rebellion; Maroonage in the Americas; Muslim Uprisings in Bahia, Brazil; Rethinking Palmares: Slave Rebellions in Colonial Brazil: An Interpretation; Role of Slaves in Abolition and Emancipation in Latin America and the Caribbean; Slave Rebellions in Latin America and the Caribbean; Zumbi.

Specific rebellions and black rebel leaders in the Caribbean: See Bussa's Rebellion; Cacos; Conspiración de la Escalera; Cudjoe; Dessalines; Haitian Revolution; Maceo y Grajales; Makandal; Morant Bay Rebellion; Nanny; Péralte; Sharpe; Toussaint Louverture;

Uprisings and rebellions in the United States: See Amistad Mutiny; Christiana Revolt of 1852; Cinque; Creole Affair; Denmark Vesey Conspiracy; Gabriel Prosser Conspiracy; New York Slave Conspiracy of 1741; New York Slave Rebellion of 1712; Slave ...