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Stephen L. Harris

soldier, politician, civil servant, and a guiding force in the establishment of the 369th U.S. Infantry Regiment, was born in Springfield, Ohio. Educated in that state, he also studied law in Ohio.

Early in his career Fillmore allied himself with Asa Bushnell, who succeeded William McKinley as governor of Ohio. Following a lynching in Urbana in 1897 Bushnell then running for reelection as governor failed to send state troops to protect a black man accused of rape Bushnell s failure to save the defenseless man outraged African Americans who believed the governor allowed the lynching fearing a backlash by white voters if he intervened At the time of the lynching Fillmore worked for Bushnell in the office of the secretary of state He was also a major in the Ninth Ohio Battalion of the Ohio National Guard then one of four black military units in ...

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Glenn Allen Knoblock

Seminole Negro Scout and Medal of Honor Recipient, was a native of Florida. While nothing specific is known about Payne's life prior to his military service, his ancestors were formerly enslaved before running away and seeking refuge with the friendly Seminole Tribe in Florida. Indeed, the Seminoles treated the large number of black runaways that sought freedom so well that many became assimilated within the tribe, adopting its language and culture. When Payne left Florida for the southwest is unknown; he may, as several biographers claim, have been among the last group of native peoples that traveled on the Trail of Tears after 1842 when the U.S. government forcibly expelled most of the remaining Seminole Tribe after the end of the long-running Seminole War to territory in what is now Oklahoma.

Payne began his military service on 12 November 1873 enlisting in the U S Army as an Indian ...

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Glenn Allen Knoblock

Seminole Negro Scout and Medal of Honor Recipient, was born in Santa Rosa, Mexico. His father may have been Caesor Payne, a native of Florida. Based on his military service, it is highly probable that Isaac Payne's family, perhaps his father, was one of the many runaway slaves in Florida that sought refuge with the Seminole Tribe, subsequently adopting their culture and way of life. After the end of the Seminole War with the U.S. government in 1842, many Black Seminoles traveled the Trail of Tears to the Indian Territory in the southwest after being forcibly removed from their native land in Florida. Wary of further troubles and the possibility of being captured and reenslaved, many Black Seminoles subsequently moved further south into Mexico to start life anew. Nothing is known about Isaac Payne's family and life in Mexico as a youth prior to 1871.

On 7 ...

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Glenn Allen Knoblock

a Seminole IndianNegro Scout in the U.S. Army and Medal of Honor recipient, was born in Arkansas. Warrior's family background was a mix of Seminole Indian and African American heritage. This resulted when either his father or mother, like many who were enslaved in the pre-Civil War South, ran away from his or her master and found refuge and freedom with the Seminole Nation in Florida. Here they would stay and marry within the tribe. Beginning in the second decade of the nineteenth century, the Seminoles fought a series of wars with the Spanish and U.S. governments to retain their tribal lands; among those who fought in these wars were many Black Seminoles. It may be speculated that Warrior's family name was derived from their fighting abilities. When the second Seminole War ended in 1842 many among the Seminoles except for a few holdouts were forcibly removed to ...