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Geoffrey Gneuhs

Baptist clergyman and U.S. Army chaplain, was born in Prince George's County, Maryland, the son of Adam Francis Plummer and Emily Saunders. His parents were slaves on “Goodwood,” the plantation of George H. Calvert, a direct descendant of Lord Baltimore. When he was still young, Henry was sold to people living in Washington, D.C., and then to Colonel Thompson in Howard County, Maryland.

After the outbreak of the Civil War in the spring of 1861, Maryland, although a slave state, remained in the Union. Exercising extralegal powers, President Abraham Lincoln placed parts of Maryland under martial law and suspended the writ of habeas corpus, arguing that the Constitution did not provide for procedures to address a rebellion and secession and thus necessitated extraordinary measures. With tensions high and rebels making incursions into Maryland, in the spring of 1862 Plummer managed to escape from the ...


Alan K. Lamm

Buffalo Soldier, U.S. Army chaplain, and African Methodist Episcopal (AME) pastor, was born a slave in Charleston, South Carolina, to L. S. and Susan Prioleau. After the Civil War he was educated at Charleston's public schools and Avery Institute. He then entered Claflin College in Orangeburg, South Carolina, and in the winter months taught school at the Lyons Township in Orangeburg County. During the same period he joined the AME Church at St. Matthews, South Carolina, where his father served as pastor. Young Prioleau assisted his father and was eventually ordained.

After completing his education at Claflin in 1875, Prioleau served as pastor of the Double Springs Mission in Laurens County, South Carolina. In 1880 he entered Wilberforce University in Ohio where he pursued the bachelor of divinity degree He helped pay for his studies by working as a farmhand in nearby Green and Clark counties ...