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Article

Dale Edwyna Smith

Lincoln University (Missouri) was created to meet freed blacks’ hunger for higher education after the Civil War. Black Union soldiers of the sixty-second and sixty-fifth U.S. Colored Infantry founded Lincoln Institute in Jefferson City, Missouri, in September 1866. The institution faced a succession of obstacles, including race discrimination, financial insecurity, debate over strategies for educating the black masses and, ironically, the end of legal segregation.

Inman E. Page attended Brown University and served as a clerk with the Freedmen's Bureau but recruited to be the first black administrator to hold the title “president” at Lincoln, Page was required to act as vice principal for one year to prove he was up to the task. Born a slave in Virginia, Page served as president of Lincoln from 1880 to 1889, and from 1922 to 1923 His job required rigorous fund raising and he often called on the Lincoln ...

Article

When founded by the Presbyterian minister John Miller Dickey and his Quaker wife, Sarah Emlen Cresson, in 1854, this rural, southeastern Pennsylvania educational venture was called the Ashmun Institute. After the assassination of President Abraham Lincoln in 1865, the school took the name Lincoln University. Lincoln is the oldest of the historically black colleges and universities in the United States. The founding president Dickey remained only until 1856. Among the longest-tenured of the presidents who followed him were Isaac Norton Rendall, 1865–1906; John Ballard Rendall, 1906–1924; Walter Livingston Wright, 1924–1926 and 1936–1945; Horace Mann Bond (who also graduated from Lincoln in 1923), 1945–1957; and Herman Russell Branson, 1970–1985. Ivory V. Nelson became president in 1999.

There were six young men in Lincoln's first graduating class in 1868; by 1900 there were thirty two ...

Article

After Abraham Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation and especially following his death, African Americans showered lavish and reverent praise on his memory. He was to them, after all, not only the savior of the nation but the president that freed the slaves. When blacks acquired the right of suffrage, they offered allegiance to Lincoln's Republican Party, not just to return a tremendous favor but in firm belief that the party was the best option to guarantee freedom and equality. However, that equality eluded blacks through the painful years of Jim Crow segregation in the late 1800s and well into the 1900s, as both the Democratic and Republican parties turned their backs on African Americans. Nonetheless, blacks shared with their white counterparts fond sentiments for Lincoln.

Article

Valerie Cunningham

New Hampshire's African American communities became clearly defined in the twentieth century. During the colonial era, as few as one to three enslaved African or black Americans were living in nearly all the towns and villages in the state, with larger clusters in and near the Atlantic trade and shipbuilding center of Portsmouth. As the former slaves gained their freedom after the Revolutionary War—not by legal statute but through individually negotiated emancipation—employers gave preference to white workers, displacing blacks from the labor force. The black population as a percentage of the total for the state had peaked in 1767 with 633 slaves representing 1.2 percent of the total population. Throughout the nineteenth century, while the white population multiplied, the number of black people, now free, declined; 494 blacks, at .15 percent of the total population in 1860 was the lowest number reported in the federal census during the period ...

Article

Anja Schüler

The population of the District of Columbia is characterized by the duality of both its long-time residents and its more transient citizens, often brought there by government-related employment. This duality is also reflected in the coexistence of the “official” Washington on Capitol Hill and the National Mall and the neighborhoods that make up the local community, and also in Washington politics, which must strive for a balance of federal and local interests.