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The triangular shipping route of the slave trade largely formed the banking industry in England. British goods such as textiles, arms, and iron were exchanged for slaves in Africa, which were then transported to the West Indies and traded for sugar, tobacco, cotton, spices, and rum. The triangular trade was a system of immense earnings, as every ship sailed with a profitable cargo. The wealth generated by the triangular trade brought increased affluence to the planters who cultivated the West Indian produce, the merchant capitalists who sold the slaves, and the industrial capitalists who produced the British goods, which in turn demanded new banking facilities and functions.

Primary of these new requirements was insurance Shipowners and slave merchants themselves insured early voyages travelling the triangular trade route However the increasing amount of bills drawn against West Indian merchants and accumulated wealth soon required large scale insurance schemes most often drawn ...


Kathy Chater

Most work done on Black people and the law in the 18th century concentrates on the handful of cases in which the question of the legality of slavery in England and Wales was brought to court, most notably the Somerset case which led to the landmark Mansfield judgment Black ...


Annell Smith

As with other aspects of British society, black people have had a long and sometimes difficult and contentious relationship with the criminal justice system.

1.Historical background

2.The Empire Windrush and after


H.R. Costello

Early Liverpudliansolicitor. He was born in Kingston, Jamaica, the son of a wealthy white member of the plantocracy and his mixed‐race mother, Hannah Woodcock. On his father's death, William and his sisters were brought back to Liverpool by their uncle, John Daggers, a prominent and respected gentleman. William's family connections and his social class apparently helped to ease his entry into Liverpudlian society because he appears to have been accepted into the highest social circles.

William Daggers was a contemporary of Joshua Lace, founder of the Liverpool Law Society, set up in 1824. Daggers followed Lace into the legal profession, and in 1819 gained his certificate as a solicitor Though he seldom appeared in court he was widely sought after and consulted for his brilliant knowledge of equity and conveyancing He acquired a reputation with the Council for his work on issues affecting the ...


David Dabydeen

Biographer of Ignatius Sancho, the African writer whose letters were published in England in 1782. Jekyll was the only son of Edward Jekyll, a captain in the Royal Navy. Details concerning his place of birth are uncertain. He studied at Christ Church, Oxford, left for France upon completion of his studies in 1774, and was called to the Bar at Lincoln's Inn in 1788.

Jekyll may have met Sancho during this period, but there is no confirmation of this. In fact, information regarding their relationship is scarce and is left to much speculation. However, one piece of evidence affirms that Jekyll and Sancho did indeed meet and had some form of connection that extended beyond the purely professional. A letter written around 1803 by Sancho's son William to Jekyll, suggests that Jekyll was generous to the Sancho family:

To Joseph Jekyll Esq M P From ...


John W. Cairns

Scottish court case in 1778 that decided that no one could be held as a slave in Scotland.









Tanuka Loha

Racism is a long‐standing feature of human societies, but it has taken many different forms and been interpreted in many different ways in the course of history.

1.Theorizing race and racism

2.Early British racisms

3.Colonialism and domestic racism in the colonial era

4.Racializing non‐whiteness

5.The ...


Jonathan Morley

A refugee is a person fleeing persecution or suffering, under the entitlements of international law. The largest proportion of the world's refugees live in poverty‐stricken countries of the Third World, to which they move from neighbouring areas afflicted by war, dictatorship, famine, drought, or other natural disasters. The term ‘asylum‐seeker’ is specific to Britain, denoting applicants who may be granted official refugee status, humanitarian protection, or discretionary leave to remain. Those rejected during the asylum process are, in effect, illegal immigrants attempting to enter the country by false means: they are returned to their home countries or moved to a third state (either one they have passed through to reach Britain or a further point of stoppage). Since the accession of the east European states to the European Union in 2004, debates on illegal immigration have become applicable almost exclusively to non‐white immigrants.

Until the late 19th century there ...


Cecily Jones

First brought into force in 1824 as the Vagrancy Act, this law was resuscitated during the 1970s, when it was widely used primarily as a means of policing black youth.


2.Enforcing the ‘Sus Law’: The Special Patrol Group


John Gilmore

In the 18th and early 19th centuries the British colonies in the Caribbean were of considerable value to Britain as a result of the wealth created from slave‐grown sugar and other tropical produce, and from the profits of the ‘African trade’, which supplied the Caribbean plantations with their slaves. This wealth made it possible for those with financial interests in the Caribbean colonies, either as owners of land and slaves (whether residents in the colonies or absentee owners living in Britain), or as merchants in Britain trading in colonial produce, to influence the political process in Britain in various ways. The effect of all this, and the individuals involved, were collectively referred to as the ‘West India interest’.

From the late 17th century the various colonies in the Caribbean began to appoint what were called colonial agents in Britain a system that continued until the middle of the 19th century ...