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Wesley Borucki and Joseph Wilson

[This entry contains two subentries, on the riots of 1943 and 1967.]


John Herschel Barnhill

The term “hate crime” was popularized in the 1980s when journalists and others sought to describe a series of events directed against, most notably, Jewish Americans, Asian Americans, African Americans, and gays and lesbians. The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) prefers the term “bias crime.” A hate or bias crime is an offense motivated—or understood to be motivated—by prejudice against a person based on his or her belonging to a group defined by disability, sexual orientation, ethnicity or nationality, or race. Hate crimes thus result from intolerance and bigotry, and their goal is to hurt or intimidate. Hate crimes may involve verbal threats or physical violence against a person or property or the use of weapons and explosives.

Hate crimes either cause or increase racial and ethnic tensions within a community Hate crimes can trigger civil disturbances split communities and even cause riots The victims become fearful alienated suspicious helpless ...


Theodore W. Eversole

The range of American organizations that can be accurately labeled “hate groups” is wide, but in general they share a common ideological commitment to intolerance and racism. These groups often manifest a willingness to use violence or the threat of violence to achieve their aims. Such entities function on the political fringes of a liberal democracy and feed on the suspicions, hatreds, and frustrations of people who see minorities as the root of all evil. Such philosophies deny both reality and the rational. Hate groups thrive on assumptions of supposed racial superiority, and commonly see themselves as defenders of a threatened but undefined American culture.

Historically and conceptually these groups are not new but have in various forms and disguises existed for years They are a reactive force to changing domestic circumstances such as late nineteenth and early twentieth century Catholic and Jewish immigration as well as African American liberation ...


Heather Marie Stur

In response to the urban unrest of the 1960s, beginning with the riot in the Watts neighborhood of Los Angeles in 1965, President Lyndon B. Johnson appointed a federal commission to examine U.S. cities in hopes of coming to a conclusion about the roots of urban riots and racial tensions. The official name of the eleven-member commission was the National Advisory Commission on Civil Disorders, but it became known as the Kerner Commission after the group's chairman, the Illinois governor Otto Kerner. President Johnson called the commission together in July 1967 in the midst of rioting in Detroit. The board issued its conclusions in February 1968 in the Kerner Commission Report which stated that the United States was moving toward two societies one black one white separate and unequal The commission reported that poverty unemployment poor housing and lack of educational opportunities fell disproportionately on African Americans ...