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Tamba M'bayo

During the colonial period, the French popularized the notion of assimilation in their attempt to apply it as a policy to govern their colonies, but, in practice, ran into difficulties. The idea was rooted in the revolutionary spirit of late-eighteenth-century France, which espoused the equality of all human beings. In 1794, the Convention affirmed that all people in the French colonies were entitled to French citizenship and republican rights. Napoleon and the Consulate (1799–1804), however, repealed the law to avoid granting French citizenship rights to people who were not citizens by birth. Nevertheless, in the euphoria that welcomed the Second Republic in 1848, the French once again extended citizenship rights to qualified colonial subjects and granted representation in the National Assembly to the four communes of Senegal (Saint-Louis, Dakar, Rufisque, and Gorée). A majority of those in French colonies nonetheless remained mere subjects (sujets ...



Madge Dresser

City in the south‐west of England whose importance to black history is firmly established by its long‐term involvement in the transatlantic slave economy, by its subsequent links to the North American anti‐slavery movement, and by the developments affecting its relatively small black population since the 1960s.

1.Bristol and the ...


Kathy Chater

Most work done on Black people and the law in the 18th century concentrates on the handful of cases in which the question of the legality of slavery in England and Wales was brought to court, most notably the Somerset case which led to the landmark Mansfield judgment Black ...


Annell Smith

As with other aspects of British society, black people have had a long and sometimes difficult and contentious relationship with the criminal justice system.

1.Historical background

2.The Empire Windrush and after


For information on

Issues surrounding diaspora: See DNA: An Alternative Record of African History; Afro-Latin American and Afro-Caribbean Identity: An Interpretation; Afro-Atlantic Culture: On the Live Dialogue Between Africa and the Americas.

Writings about displacement and the search for identity: See Brathwaite, Edward Kamau; Contemporary African ...


Jane Poyner

While there are cases in earlier periods where we have some evidence about the education of individual black people (such as that of Francis Barber) or members of particular professions (e.g. doctors a more general picture only begins to emerge with the growing black presence from the middle ...



Harry Goulbourne

While there is a growing African presence among Britain's black communities, sociological research on black families in Britain has tended to concentrate on families of Caribbean origin, and this is the focus of this entry.

1.Theorizing the black Caribbean family

2.Social policy implications for the black Caribbean family ...


Heidi Safia Mirza

Black British feminism as a theoretical and intellectual movement had its genesis in the 1940s and 1950s, in the activism and struggles of black women migrants from the Caribbean, Africa, and the Indian sub‐continent. Official statistics and texts documenting the main period of migration often overlook the female contribution to the post‐Second World War period of migration. However, stories of black women's participation and experiences have been kept alive by black women writers who challenge their negation from history, disrupting the often neat telling of those times: for example, the black women soldiers in the Second World War; Una Marson, who campaigned for the League of Coloured Peoples in the 1940s; the political activist Claudia Jones in the 1950s; the grass‐roots activist Olive Morris in the 1970s; and the trade unionist Jayaben Desai.

With its simultaneous interrogation of the racial and gendered subtext of Britishness black British feminism ...


Muhammad Anwar

1.History and demography

2.Political responses to immigration

3.White reactions to immigration

4.Current immigration trends and debates



Lyn Innes

From 1172 until 1922 Ireland was governed by England and considered by the English a part of Britain. It is not surprising, therefore, that during the 18th century its history is implicated in slavery and the slave trade and other colonial enterprises. Nevertheless, the historical ‘black presence’ in Ireland was almost completely ignored until 2002, when W. A. Hart published his seminal article ‘Africans in Eighteenth Century Ireland’. In the absence of further historical research, however, we can only offer glimpses of the black presence in Ireland over the past three centuries.

Many Irishmen owned estates in the Caribbean and brought slaves to serve them from the Caribbean to Ireland. Eighteenth‐century newspapers in Ireland carried advertisements offering rewards for runaway slaves. Thus, in 1766 the Belfast Newsletter displayed a notice offering a reward of 3 guineas for ‘a young negro manservant’ named John More described as straight and ...



Humayun Ansari

Britons had knowledge of Islam almost from its inception in the 7th century primarily because of the major Muslim incursions into Europe which brought Arabs as close to England as Poitiers in France in 732 References to the religion of the Saracens date from the Anglo Saxon period The English ...


Erin D. Somerville

Government‐funded organization employing over 7,000 Caribbean immigrants between 1956 and 1970. During this period the population of immigrant employees within London Transport far outweighed the national average of 3 to 10 per cent, with some divisions registering as many as 41 per cent Caribbean workers. Most of this staff was recruited in a joint venture between London Transport and the Barbadian government, resulting in the immigration of approximately 400 employees per year between 1956 and 1965.

The tradition of black workers within the London Transport system dates back to Joe Clough, a Jamaican immigrant employed by the London General Omnibus Company in 1908 However mass employment of Caribbean immigrants did not begin until the years following the Second World War Eager to return to a male majority staff and to replace female workers employed during the war London Transport began looking outside the United Kingdom for ...


Cecily Jones and Ian Jones

The provision of mental health services to black people in Britain has been a major concern among both the black community and mental health professionals.


2.Mental health and the African‐Caribbean experience in Britain

3.The media

4.The criminal justice system

5.Diagnosis and assessment of mental ...


Angela Leonard

One way to understand how a nation lives with its past and present is by locating monuments and memorials markers and places that commemorate historic events celebrate achievements of individuals help the bereaved remember and mourn the dead give meaning to the past and locate the presence of groups who ...


Karen Chouhan

A controversial policy approach for managing cultural diversity in multi‐ethnic societies. Multiculturalism stresses mutual respect and tolerance for cultural differences within a society.


2.Origins and definitions

3.Early 21st‐century views

4.Race equality


Leland Conley Barrows

Peasants are subsistence cultivators, organized in household units, who, either as smallholders or as tenants, control the land upon which they farm and graze their flocks. Strictly speaking, the term excludes primitive subsistence cultivators and herders, on the one hand, and landless rural laborers (rural proletariats), on the other, even if both are frequently included with peasants when estimating the size and importance of rural populations. Peasants, strictly speaking, are at least partly integrated into a market economy and forced to contribute a portion of their earned surpluses to an exterior socioeconomic authority.

Given the predominantly rural nature of the African population—85 percent in 1950 and 63 percent in 2000 it is evident that both the former colonial rulers wishing to develop their African possessions and African nationalists seeking to mobilize the rural masses in opposition to colonial rule and then after independence to develop their countries would attach ...



Oladosu Afis

One of the most difficult concepts in African thought and indeed around the world is race. It is difficult because its definition is slippery and multifarious even as nations and peoples across cultures and civilizations have inscribed the word with their histories and communal experiences, some of which often evoke emotions and negative feelings.

Ordinarily the word race is a biological, social, ideological, and even legal construct. When it is employed, for example, in biology, it is with reference to the human race (homo sapiens In the social or ideological realm however the word is used in reference to people s color and skin pigmentation It is employed to classify and group people to dehumanize and dominate them When the word is used in this way it ceases to be an objective category It becomes racism or racialism The latter is responsible for the idea that the white ...



Hudita Mustafa

The idea of the tribe is one of the most enduring, mobile, consequential ideas in thought about Africa. A racialized concept of culture and community, the “African tribe” (from the Latin tribu a unit of the Roman state was a tradition invented by Europeans of the late nineteenth century to categorize apparently nationless stateless societies In tribes primordial affiliation origin territory and culture coincide Based on a compulsion to classify subordinate and then characterize Africa held by British and French colonial administrations missionaries and early anthropologies this essentialist antihistorical image of Africa created and legitimized legible units for colonial knowledge and governance In the early twentieth century colonial states adopted indirect rule by native chiefs to secure racial subordination buttressed by ethnic pluralism and decentralized despotism Mamdani These bifurcated states directly governed colonial urban centers while they appointed tribal chiefs to bounded administrative zones in provinces The illusion of ...


Graham Connah and Saheed Aderinto

This entry contains two subentries: An Overview; and Pre-Colonial Urbanization.