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In revisiting the history of Belize, Shoman observes that on the commemoration of the fiftieth anniversary of emancipation of 1888, White-Creoles chose to reenact the battle of St. George's Caye. While condemning the African slave workers’ riot of 1894, which attempted to disrupt the order of things in the settlement, Woods had surmised in his Clarion tabloid that:

What a lesson in loyalty and confidence it would constantly be to those very people if their minds turned back vividly to that September day (of 1798) at St. George's Caye when the sturdy Baymen masters and slaves (emphasis added) willingly stood forth shoulder to shoulder to shed their blood to defend the government and protect those they served

(Shoman: 120).

Present day Belize is bounded on the north by Mexico the west and south by Guatemala and on the east by the Caribbean Sea An ongoing border ...

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Alaska  

Nick J. Sciullo

The United States' northernmost state has always had a low black population, one of the lowest in the United States. The 2000 U.S. Census lists Alaska as having 21,787 black residents who make up 3.5 percent of its population. This is likely as much an effect of geographical boundaries as societal forces. After the Civil War, blacks migrated to Alaska in search of new economic opportunities; they became seafarers and worked in the whaling and fur industries and were better able to find meaningful work than many of those who stayed in the American South. The Alaska Gold Rush in the 1890s brought many from the contiguous United States to Alaska, African Americans among them, and many stayed—some for profit and some for adventure's sake.

President Franklin D. Roosevelt authorized the building of the Alaska Highway in February 1942 and more than three thousand black engineers worked on the ...

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Nicole Sealey

novelist, philosopher, and scholar was born in London, England, to Joe Appiah, a Ghanaian barrister and statesman, and Peggy Cripps, novelist and daughter of Sir Stafford Cripps, a British statesman. Not long after Appiah's birth, his family relocated to Ghana, where he attended primary school. After the political imprisonment of his father by then‐president Kwame Nkrumah, Appiah returned to England. There he completed his secondary education at Bryanston, a British boarding school.

Influenced by his mother's affinity for the literary arts, Appiah read works of authors such as Chinua Achebe, D. H. Lawrence, and Tolstoy. Visitors to the Appiah residence included the Pan‐Africanist authors and theorists C. L. R. James and Richard Wright. Appiah's multiethnic family and early fascination with literature helped shape his identity and his world view. In 1972 he entered Cambridge University where he earned both a BA and ...

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Tamba M'bayo

During the colonial period, the French popularized the notion of assimilation in their attempt to apply it as a policy to govern their colonies, but, in practice, ran into difficulties. The idea was rooted in the revolutionary spirit of late-eighteenth-century France, which espoused the equality of all human beings. In 1794, the Convention affirmed that all people in the French colonies were entitled to French citizenship and republican rights. Napoleon and the Consulate (1799–1804), however, repealed the law to avoid granting French citizenship rights to people who were not citizens by birth. Nevertheless, in the euphoria that welcomed the Second Republic in 1848, the French once again extended citizenship rights to qualified colonial subjects and granted representation in the National Assembly to the four communes of Senegal (Saint-Louis, Dakar, Rufisque, and Gorée). A majority of those in French colonies nonetheless remained mere subjects (sujets ...

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Casey-Leininger Charles F.

Avondale is a neighborhood of the city of Cincinnati located northeast of the city's central business district. The 2010 US Census reported that Avondale had a population of 12,466 of which 89 percent identified as African American only, 7 percent identified as white only, and the remainder reported some other race or combination of races. Between about 1945 and 1965 the neighborhood was the scene of a massive population shift that saw its middle- and upper middle-class white population replaced by middle- and lower-income African Americans. During this period the neighborhood also became an important center of the city's African American cultural and political life.

Today Avondale is one of the poorest and most distressed neighborhoods in the city. Its poverty rate, calculated from the US Census Bureau's 2005–2009 American Community Survey ACS was 37 5 percent and 44 percent of its working age population had no employment In ...

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Black Los Angeles: American Dreams and Racial Realities is an anthology edited by Darnell Hunt and Ana-Christina Ramon providing a multifaceted analysis of neighborhoods of metropolitan Los Angeles that are either currently or historically predominantly black. The contributions selected by the editors highlight the rich history of accomplishment and survival in Los Angeles's community of color as it continuously confronts challenges to the geographical space of the community; shifts in local and national policy; the changing dynamics around race, social class, gender, and sexual identity; shifts in the opportunity structure for residents; and the realities of environmental and economic risk. The volume is organized into four parts: Space, People, Image, and Action It begins with a look at the historical foundations of the black community of Los Angeles and ends with a more contemporary question of now what for readers via series of action research chapters ...

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Leaving North Carolina was not an easy decision in any era for black migrants. Migration was about leaving family, friends, the farm, church—everything familiar. North Carolina was not a major slaveholding state. While cotton states to the South featured large plantations, the Central Piedmont of North Carolina, where tobacco was the main crop, did not. In 1860 nearly 70 percent of the slaveholding families owned fewer than ten slaves, and 67 percent of white families held no slaves at all. Small farmers were the largest single class of whites in the state and, when necessary, they hired free blacks. Only Maryland and Virginia had larger free black populations. North Carolina free blacks, unlike those in other states, could own property and transfer land in their wills.

Free blacks were discouraged from owning slaves Black slave ownership was considered dangerous because it challenged the legitimacy of the slave system In any ...

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Eric R. Jackson

By the 1970s Bond Hill had become the destination for thousands of local African American residents. Just like their non–African American counterparts, persons of color moved to this region, which was located just a thirty-minute drive from downtown Cincinnati, Ohio (also known as the “Queen City”), in a quest for better jobs and a higher quality of life. This process was not easy or simple. It required, in some ways, a dramatic transformation in migration patterns and racial attitudes, as well as both the economic and residential patterns of the community. Nonetheless this conversion took place and was championed by thousands of African American Cincinnatians. But during the 1930s this change would have not been predicated so soon after the establishment of Bond Hill as a community entity.

Gradually between the late 1930s and the late 1950s thousands of Cincinnatians began to move into regions outside the central city business ...

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Perhaps no two films give as clear a window into the experiences of working-class black men in Southern California as Killer of Sheep (1978) and Boyz N the Hood (1991). Though shot in very different styles and moments, both communicate working-class despair as it plays out against the Los Angeles landscape.

Charles Burnett, director of Killer of Sheep, was a member of what is now known as the LA Rebellion, a group of black filmmakers trained at UCLA who experimented with new ways to tell stories about black experience. These filmmakers used cinematic techniques drawn from a wide variety of international film movements, including the New Wave cinemas, Italian Neorealism, and avant-garde and experimental film. Killer of Sheep s first scene is unexplained and yet intimate revealing close ups of an unnamed man yelling at his preteen son for not defending his brother This ...

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Bristol  

Madge Dresser

City in the south‐west of England whose importance to black history is firmly established by its long‐term involvement in the transatlantic slave economy, by its subsequent links to the North American anti‐slavery movement, and by the developments affecting its relatively small black population since the 1960s.

1.Bristol and the ...

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Zada Johnson

Located on Chicago’s South Side, the historic Bronzeville community formed as a result of the Great Migration of African Americans from the South to northern cities. The name Bronzeville was coined by news editor James Gentry in his Mayor of Bronzeville promotions for the Chicago Bee and later The Chicago Defender. In their landmark sociological study Black Metropolis St Clair Drake and Horace Cayton discuss the way that African American migrants employed the term Bronzeville as an alternative to the negative connotation of terms like Black Ghetto and Black Belt that were used to describe their community In its heyday Bronzeville was a center of African American cultural expression in Chicago In addition financial magnates served as home to a host of writers musicians athletes visual artists activists and scholars Like many other urban centers during the mid twentieth century Bronzeville would feel the devastating effects of disinvestment ...

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Eric Montgomery

“Paris is lovely. It is beautiful it is lush and wonderful. I would gladly trade it all for a corner at 41st Street & Central Ave” —John Kinloch

The United States is a nation of movement, with the population expanding and contracting in regions as a result of technological, societal, and economic changes. With each significant change came opportunities for mobility both socially and geographically—there was no time that this was truer than during World War II. As the war continued, defense production in the United States grew exponentially and there was a surge in need for labor in automobile, rubber, and steel factories. As a result, there was a second great migration as more than 5 million African Americans migrated from the South to the Northeast, Midwest, and West in search of work.

Los Angeles was given more than $11 billion in war contracts and saw its African American ...