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Bristol  

Madge Dresser

City in the south‐west of England whose importance to black history is firmly established by its long‐term involvement in the transatlantic slave economy, by its subsequent links to the North American anti‐slavery movement, and by the developments affecting its relatively small black population since the 1960s.

1.Bristol and the ...

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Debra C. Smith

Like the story of many southern cities, Charlotte, North Carolina has endured its portion of racial inequity, civil rights activism, and violent acts surrounding segregation efforts, But Charlotte, the Queen City, the largest city in North Carolina has been and remains an alcove for African American experience steeped in memory and now modern familiarity. Charlotte is a source of progress and pride for African Americans in the city who lean on historical strength to continue to develop political power, economic resources, and educational aspirations.

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Kathy Chater

Most work done on Black people and the law in the 18th century concentrates on the handful of cases in which the question of the legality of slavery in England and Wales was brought to court, most notably the Somerset case which led to the landmark Mansfield judgment Black ...

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Annell Smith

As with other aspects of British society, black people have had a long and sometimes difficult and contentious relationship with the criminal justice system.

1.Historical background

2.The Empire Windrush and after

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Ethnicity and race have been less troubling military questions for the United States than for nations where ethnic and racial competition, political power struggles, or caste systems have had a military dimension. Nonetheless, both factors have created military dilemmas for Americans from the earliest colonial settlements. Before the Revolutionary War, many white colonists, who considered blacks biologically and culturally inferior and poor material for soldiers, were also afraid of arming slaves and free blacks and of losing their labor services. Sometimes blacks were excluded from the colonial militias, particularly in the South, but military need could overshadow racial fear, such as during the French and Indian War. Some slaves were even granted their freedom for wartime military service.

Ethnocentrism suspicion of loyalties and loss of labor also militated against the military use of some non English immigrants but the need for frontier defense in the eighteenth century contributed to the ...

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Steven J. Niven

lieutenant‐governor of South Carolina and the leading nineteenth century African American freemason, was born in Philadelphia to parents whose names have not been recorded. His father was a free person of color from Haiti and his mother was a white Englishwoman. Gleaves was educated in Philadelphia and New Orleans, and as a young man worked as a steward on steamboats along the Mississippi River.

Gleaves first came to prominence as an organizer of Masonic lodges in Pennsylvania and Ohio. While black freemasonry had gained a foothold under Prince Hall in Massachusetts in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries, by the 1840s, Pennsylvania was the center of black fraternalism, and Gleaves would become one of the Order's leading evangelists before the Civil War. In 1846 the year he was first initiated as a brother mason the Pennsylvania Grand Lodge of Prince Hall Masons appointed Gleaves a District Deputy Grand ...

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Ireland  

Lyn Innes

From 1172 until 1922 Ireland was governed by England and considered by the English a part of Britain. It is not surprising, therefore, that during the 18th century its history is implicated in slavery and the slave trade and other colonial enterprises. Nevertheless, the historical ‘black presence’ in Ireland was almost completely ignored until 2002, when W. A. Hart published his seminal article ‘Africans in Eighteenth Century Ireland’. In the absence of further historical research, however, we can only offer glimpses of the black presence in Ireland over the past three centuries.

Many Irishmen owned estates in the Caribbean and brought slaves to serve them from the Caribbean to Ireland. Eighteenth‐century newspapers in Ireland carried advertisements offering rewards for runaway slaves. Thus, in 1766 the Belfast Newsletter displayed a notice offering a reward of 3 guineas for ‘a young negro manservant’ named John More described as straight and ...

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Islam  

Humayun Ansari

Britons had knowledge of Islam almost from its inception in the 7th century primarily because of the major Muslim incursions into Europe which brought Arabs as close to England as Poitiers in France in 732 References to the religion of the Saracens date from the Anglo Saxon period The English ...

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Beatriz Rivera-Barnes

Since the late 1980s the term “Latino” has been used to describe all people residing in the United States who are of Latin American, Central American, or Spanish-speaking Caribbean descent, regardless of country of origin, ethnic origin, or race. In the early twenty-first century this term was beginning to supplant the term “Hispanic,” which also has been used to describe this group. Latinos in the United States can therefore be white, mestizo, Mayan, Aztec, black, mulatto, Peruvian, Bolivian, Venezuelan, and so on.

There has been a misconception about using the terms “black” and “Latino” together. The journalist and lecturer Roberto Santiago writes that for many years he was told there was no way that he could be black and Puerto Rican at the same time and that such a statement still perplexes him As a black Latino he has been shaped by his black and Latino heritages and he ...

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Angela Leonard

One way to understand how a nation lives with its past and present is by locating monuments and memorials markers and places that commemorate historic events celebrate achievements of individuals help the bereaved remember and mourn the dead give meaning to the past and locate the presence of groups who ...