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Kimberly Cheek

slave and pirate, was an African war chieftain who became a member of the brotherhood of pirates who sailed the Atlantic Ocean during the period known as the golden age of piracy, which spanned 1630 to 1730 Caesar operated during the height of the Atlantic slave trade Although his exploits have been exaggerated and obscured by legend he is a symbol of early black resistance to the tyranny of slavery that defined the existence of many blacks in the eighteenth century Atlantic world He was born in West Africa although the exact place of his birth and the names of his parents are unknown Caesar was very astute and evaded capture from many different slave traders occupying the West African coast during the eighteenth century Ultimately he was captured when a deceitful slave ship captain enticed him and twenty of his warriors aboard a slave ship by showing ...

Article

Trevor Hall

who defended Native American rights and promoted African slavery, only to later condemn it, was born in Seville, Spain. His father, Pedro de Las Casas, had sailed to the Americas as a merchant on Christopher Columbus’s second voyage. He was educated in law at the University of Salamanca. Las Casas is renowned because he recommended that the Spanish king purchase enslaved Africans from Portuguese merchants and ship them from Portuguese colonies in West Africa directly to the Spanish Caribbean. In 1493 Las Casas was living in Seville, where he witnessed the arrival of Columbus following his maiden voyage to the Americas. Columbus brought a number of exotic, colorful tropical birds and a dozen half-naked Native Americans back with him. To fifteenth-century Spaniards, half-naked people were savages. The experience has a profound effect on the young Spaniard.

In 1502 Las Casas boarded an armada that sailed from Spain to Hispaniola ...

Article

Celia  

Steven J. Niven

a slave executed for killing her master, was probably born in central Missouri. The names of her parents are unknown. Practically all the information that is known about Celia is taken from court records and newspaper accounts of her trial for the murder in 1855 of Robert Newsom, a farmer and slave-owner in Calloway County, Missouri. Newsom had purchased Celia in neighboring Audrain County, Missouri, some five years earlier. Celia was the only female slave in the Newsom household; the five others included a young boy and four young adult males who herded the livestock and harvested the eight hundred acres of prime land that had helped elevate Robert Newsom to a position “solidly among the ranks of Callaway's residents who were comfortably well-off” (McLaurin, 8). Newsom's wife had died in 1849 and it may have been that he purchased Celia a cook to assist his thirty six ...

Article

Laura Murphy

was born to an enslaved mother on Maplewood Plantation in Boone County, Kentucky. Her mother, Priscilla, worked in the plantation house and helped to raise the children of John P. Gaines, her owner and later a U.S. congressman and governor of the Oregon territory. While Priscilla is listed as “black” in the 1850 census, Margaret Garner is listed as “mulatto” suggesting that John Gaines was perhaps Margaret's father. When Gaines left to govern Oregon, he abruptly sold his plantation and all of the slaves on it to his brother, Archibald James, who thus became Margaret's owner.

On 27 January 1856 Garner and sixteen other slaves escaped from the various Kentucky plantations on which they worked They stole two horses to which they hitched a sled to carry them to the Ohio River Leaving Covington Kentucky together they crossed the frozen Ohio River after which they split up ...

Article

Former slaves whose kidnapping case was fought by the 18th‐century abolitionist Granville Sharp. John Hylas and his wife, Mary, were both born in Barbados. In the year 1754 they were each brought to England—John by his mistress, Judith Aleyne, and Mary by her master and mistress, Mr and Mrs Newton. They met in England, and married with the consent of their owners in 1758. After their marriage John Hylas was set free, and the couple lived happily together until, in 1766, Mary was kidnapped by her former owners and sent to the West Indies to be sold as a slave.

Having heard of Granville Sharp's fight for the liberty of Jonathan Strong, in 1768 John Hylas approached Sharp, who prepared a memorandum enabling him to begin an action against Newton.

The court found in favour of Hylas, who was awarded 1s nominal ...

Article

Andrés López de Rosario, known as Andresote, was from Valencia, a city in northern Venezuela. He was descended from Africans and Indians who populated the Yaracuy River valley, which was under the jurisdiction of the city Nueva Segovia de Barquisimeto. As a result of the area's economic prosperity, the inhabitants sought autonomy from the Spanish colony of Nueva Segovia. The colonial authorities responded in 1724 by burning more than sixty houses and the church, which had been there since the previous century.

From 1730 to 1733, Andresote led a band of smugglers that operated in the Yaracuy valley, in the coastal strip between Puerto Cabello, in the state of Carabobo, and in Yucacas. He did this in open defiance of the legal monopoly of the Compañía Guipuzcoana, which was formed in 1728 and was given control over the trade in what was then the Province of Venezuela ...

Article

Sara Kakazu

slave who sued for freedom, was born to a white mother and a father of African descent, most likely a slave. Slew lived as a free woman until 1762, marrying several times. At the age of forty-three she was forcefully kidnapped from her Massachusetts home and enslaved by John Whipple Jr.

Three years after her capture Slew filed a civil suit, Jenny Slew, Spinster, versus John Whipple, Jr., Gentleman against her would be master asserting through her counsel that as a child s legal status follows that of the mother she was like her white mother a free woman Though at the time most colonies denied slaves legal protection Massachusetts allowed an enslaved individual though still recognized as property to bring a civil suit As one of the first slaves to sue for freedom Slew faced a panel of judges who had no precedent to follow She accidentally ...

Article

John Gilmore

The subject of one of the earliest important legal cases relating to slavery in Britain. Strong was brought to England from Barbados, where he had been a slave and which may have been his place of birth, by his master, a Barbadian merchant and planter called David Lisle. In 1765 Granville Sharp met Strong in London, at the house of his brother William Sharp, a surgeon who gave free medical advice and treatment to the poor. Lisle had beaten Strong about the head with a pistol and turned him out into the street, and Strong had found his way to William Sharp's house in search of help. William Sharp arranged for Strong to be treated at St Bartholomew's Hospital, but his injuries were so severe that it was more than four months before he was discharged.

The Sharp brothers then found employment for Strong with a London apothecary ...