1-20 of 32 Results  for:

  • Free Blacks and Emancipation x
  • Africa and Diaspora Studies x
Clear all

Article

Adhuu  

Trevor Hall

who was one of the first West Africans enslaved by the Portuguese in 1441, and transported by ship to Europe. He lived in Rio de Oro (modern-day Western Sahara). Information about his parents and marital status is not known; however, Adhuu was captured with a youth who may have been his relative. His reason for renown is that after he was enslaved in Portugal, he negotiated his freedom with Prince Henry the Navigator (1394–1460). Adhuu probably spoke Berber or Arabic, and communicated with Portuguese translators.

The Portuguese royal chronicler Gomes Eannes da Azurara witnessed Adhuu’s arrival in Portugal in 1441 Azurara said that Prince Henry had ordered Captain Antam Goncalves to sail from Portugal to West Africa and capture the first persons he found and transport them back to him Captain Goncalves sailed to Rio de Oro where he spotted human and camel tracks along the ...

Article

Ana Raquel Fernandes

Founded in 1807, in the wake of the abolition of the British slave trade, the African Institution replaced the Society for the Abolition of Slave Trade (1787) and had similar aims to the Sierra Leone Company (1791). Its purpose was to secure African freedom from British imperial rule, the ‘civilization’ of Africa through the dissemination of Christianity, and the establishment of profitable trade ventures that did not rely on slavery.

William Wilberforce, who had led the parliamentary campaign for the abolition of the slave trade, was one of its vice‐presidents. Other prominent abolitionists members of the Institution were Prince William Frederick (president of the Institution), James Stephen, who served as one of its vice‐presidents, Granville Sharp, one of its first directors, Zachary Macaulay, honorary secretary, Henry Thornton, its treasurer, Edward Henry Columbine who became a commissioner of the Institution ...

Article

Alonford James Robinson

In 1807 the British Parliament voted to end British participation in the international slave trade. In 1834 it ended slavery entirely, promising freedom to more than a million slaves in the Caribbean. In an effort to soften the effects of emancipation on white slaveholders, the British Parliament decided to implement a program known as apprenticeship. Under this program all slaves under six years of age, and those born after August 1, 1834, were freed. But praedials (fieldworkers) were required to work for their current owners for a period of six years, and nonpraedials for a period of four years. After this period all slaves would be emancipated.

The apprenticeship program was so overloaded with rules and restrictions that special magistrates had to be appointed to monitor the system Slaves worked forty hours per week in exchange for food clothing and shelter They were permitted to spend their remaining time ...

Article

John Gilmore

Also known as Sara or Saartjie, and as Bartman (1788?–1815/16), a member of the Khoisan people of southern Africa, exhibited as a ‘freak’ in 19th‐century Britain. Her original name is unknown, but when she was employed by a Dutch farmer called Peter Cezar, she was given the Afrikaans name of Saartjie [Little Sarah] Baartman, and this was later Anglicized in various forms. In 1810 she was brought to Britain by Peter Cezar's brother Hendric [or Henrick], a Boer farmer at the Cape, and Alexander Dunlop, a British army surgeon. Dunlop soon sold his interest in the enterprise to Cezar, who made money by exhibiting Baartman in London and elsewhere in Britain under the name of ‘the Hottentot Venus’. ‘Hottentot’ was a traditional derogatory term for Khoisan people, while ‘Venus’ appears intended to refer to the idea of ‘the Sable Venus or more generally ...

Article

Mohammah Baquaqua was born in 1824 in Zoogoo, (probably a small village in present-day Angola) in central Africa, to a fairly prosperous family. He was raised in an Islamic household and was sent by his father to the local mosque to study the Qur'an (Koran), the sacred text central to Islamic worship. Unsatisfied with school, he left to learn the trade of making needles and knives with his uncle in another village. Baquaqua was captured and enslaved after a struggle for the succession of the local throne. His brother managed to find someone who was able to purchase Baquaqua's freedom. Baquaqua returned to his hometown and became a bodyguard to the local king, where he noted the corruption of the royal armed forces that looted the citizens of the city.

A group of individuals apparently envious of his close association with the king engineered Baquaqua s capture and ...

Article

Over the course of United States history, black soldiers have periodically been praised for the skill and courage they exhibited in war. More recently, as the United States has reexamined the role of blacks in war, appreciation for black soldiers' determination to defend their country has deepened. Yet there is still a legacy of black soldiering that is largely unknown—the role of black soldiers in virtually every military conflict of the Americas from Columbus to the present.

Few people know, for example, that Spanish conquistador Francisco de Montejo appointed a black military aide in the sixteenth century to lead an expedition to subdue an Indian village. In 1542 Montejo conquered Yucatán, a state in south-eastern Mexico The Mexican episode is just one early example of many similar conflicts in which blacks played a major role Some of the black soldiers fought for months but others fought for years The ...

Article

Cafundó is a rural community outside of the heavily urbanized metropolitan area of São Paulo, Brazil, about 20 kilometers (12 miles) from the city of Sorocaba. Only about seventy people live in the hamlet of ten or so mud-and-straw houses. The people of Cafundó mostly cultivate rice, beans, and corn, which they supplement through hunting or working as agricultural laborers on nearby large farms.

According to the oral history of Cafundó, the people moved onto land in the area in the mid-1860s, when a local slave owner willed to two of his African slaves, Antonia and Ifigênia, their freedom as well as several hectares of land. Although all of Cafundó's modern inhabitants claim descent from Antonia and Ifigênia, the inhabitants are split into two groups bearing little resemblance to one another. One group is distinctly Afro-Brazilian, while the other appears to be caboclo a term used to ...

Article

Amos J. Beyan

Crummell was born March 1819, the son of Charity Hicks, a freeborn African American woman and a resident of Long Island, New York, and Boston Crummell, an emancipated African from the Temne ethnic group of what became known as Sierra Leone in West Africa. Although the conditions under which he became emancipated have not been documented, it has been maintained that Crummell’s father gained his freedom by escaping his owner when he became an adult in New York. The family thereafter established a small oyster store in the black section of New York. Despite the fact that they had limited means and lacked formal education, Crummell’s parents decided to enroll him in the Mulberry Street School and further employed qualified individuals to tutor him.

Following his basic education Crummell together with his black colleagues Thomas Sidney and Henry Highland Garnet went to Canaan New Hampshire to study at Noyes ...

Article

James Walvin

Term used to refer to the act or process by which slaves were freed, individually or collectively. This entry describes the political processes in the early 19th century that led to all slaves in the British colonies becoming free in law over the period 1834–8.

1.The movement towards ...

Article

Europe  

Leyla Keough

Europe, lying just across the Mediterranean Sea from North Africa, has had a complex relationship with the African continent and its people. Europeans began the Transatlantic Slave Trade in the sixteenth century. They also explored and colonized Africa, much of which remained under European control until the twentieth century. Africans, however, have also traveled to Europe. During the early modern era, most blacks in Europe were slaves or paid servants, but a few became artists and scholars. During the early twentieth century, Africans and people of African descent living in Europe experienced remarkable intellectual, political, and artistic stirrings that led to influential movements such as Pan-Africanism and Négritude. Since the 1950s, a wave of black immigration has transformed many European nations and given rise to a new population of Afro-Europeans.

Article

Julien Fédon's rebellion, inspired by the French and Haitian revolutions, lasted more than a year. During that time 24,000 slaves left their estates to join Fédon, other free blacks, and French whites to fight for installation of Grenada within the French Republic as a free state without slavery. By February ...

Article

Leyla Keough

In Smith v. Gould (1706), Lord Chief Justice John Holt freed a black slave from his West Indian owner, concluding that “common law takes no notice of Negroes being different from other men. By the common law no man can have property in another … as soon as a Negro comes into England, he becomes free: one may be a villain [a serf] in England, but not a Slave.” These comments became an important precedent in the eighteenth-century battle against slavery in England. This case, which became known as the Holt Decision, posited one solution to a legal predicament that had faced Great Britain since its involvement in slavery: Did slaves who were brought to England by West Indian planters remain the property of those slaveholders? Or did these slaves become free upon entering England, which was generally upheld as a free land?

In the absence of parliamentary ...

Article

Leyla Keough

According to James Walvin, scholar of English slavery, the case of James Somerset (The King v. James Somerset) was “England's most famous slave case.” It was the culmination of the legal battle of Granville Sharp, a white English abolitionist, against slavery, and it came to be known as the case that freed slaves in Great Britain. Actually, the Somerset case was just the beginning; it took over sixty more years for the English to outlaw slavery and emancipate the slaves in the British Empire.

James Somerset was bought by Charles Stewart in Virginia; in October 1769 he was taken to England, where two years later, in October of 1771, Somerset ran away. Furious, Stewart recaptured Somerset in November 1771 and placed him on board the ship Ann and Mary under the protection of Captain John Knowles, who was to take Somerset to Jamaica ...

Article

John W. Cairns

Scottish court case in 1778 that decided that no one could be held as a slave in Scotland.

1.Background

2.Litigants

3.Facts

4.Progress

5.Argument

6.Effect

Article

The Latin American and Caribbean regions were the first areas of the Americas to be populated by African immigrants. African immigration to the Americas may have begun before European exploration of the region. Blacks sailed with Christopher Columbus even on his first voyage in 1492, and the earliest Spanish and Portuguese explorers were likewise accompanied by black Africans who had been born and raised in Iberia. In the following four centuries, millions of immigrants from Africa were brought to the New World as slaves. Today, their descendants form significant ethnic minorities in several Latin American countries, and they are the dominant element in many of the Caribbean nations. Over the centuries, black people have added their original contributions to the cultural mix of their respective societies and thus exerted a profound influence on all facets of life in Latin America.

Article

Leslie Primo

Reputed daughter of Sir John Lindsay, then in the Royal Navy, on duty in the West Indies about 1760–5. Sir John discovered Dido's mother, a slave, on board a captured Spanish ship. She was brought to England, where it was speculated that a brief relationship between them resulted in Dido's birth. Soon after her birth, and for reasons unknown, Dido (also known as Belle) was taken to Kenwood House to be brought up with her ‘cousin’ Lady Elizabeth Murray by Lord and Lady Mansfield, Sir John Lindsay's uncle. Lord Mansfield was the Lord Chief Justice who would later be responsible for the landmark ruling of 1772 that freed the runaway slave James Somerset (see Somerset case). Sir John Lindsay died in 1788, when Dido was 25, leaving £1,000 in his will to share between Dido and a mysterious ‘brother’.

Dido lived at Kenwood for ...

Article

David Dabydeen

African‐American boxer who gained a significant reputation in England. Molineaux was born in Virginia and was the slave to a wealthy playboy who frequently used him in fights against other slaves. In one particular event Molineaux's master bet $100,000 that he would defeat another slave in a match and promised to grant him his freedom should he win. Molineaux won and left for England in 1803, where he met and subsequently trained under Bill Richmond, another African‐American boxer of consequence. Molineaux's first match in England was against Tom Blake, whom he knocked out in the eighth round. Richmond prepared Molineaux for his important fight against Tom Cribb, an opponent whom Richmond had never managed to defeat. In December 1810 the match between Cribb and Molineaux took place at Copthorne near East Grinstead and after 39 rounds Molineaux lost The fight was an especially trying one ...

Article

Article

David Dabydeen

Africanservant who worked in England and later became a successful businessman. Picton was brought to Kingston, Surrey, from Senegal at the age of 6 as a gift to Sir John Philipps of Norbiton from Captain Parr, a British army officer. He was most probably born a Muslim but was baptized into the Christian faith on 4 December 1761. It was then that he was christened Cesar. Details of his Senegalese name are not known. He developed a close bond with the Philipps family. They, being strongly in favour of education and Christian missionary work, encouraged the young Cesar. When Sir John died in 1764, Cesar gained his independence and rented a coach house and stables from the money that he had inherited from Sir John It was during this time that he gave himself the surname of Picton Subsequently he set up as a coal ...

Article

Pedro Pérez-Sarduy and Jean Stubbs

Millions of Africans of different ethnic groupings were shipped halfway across the world to labor the Sugar, coffee, tobacco, and rice plantations and the mines of the New World. They brought with them their religions, their languages, their dance, their music, and their instruments. European colonial masters did their utmost to strip these Africans of their freedom, their dignity, and their culture, but culture was perhaps the easiest of the three for peoples of African descent to continue to subvert.

From the United States South and the Mexican altiplano in the north, to the Peruvian coastal lowlands and the Argentine pampas down south, the rhythms of Africa continued to beat. The Samba and Candomblé of Brazil; the Son and Santería of Cuba; the street Carnivals of Salvador de Bahia, Rio De Janeiro, and a host of other towns and cities; the merengue of the Dominican Republic ...