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Khalid White

The history of Allensworth is distinctive in that it is the only town in California to be founded, financed and governed by African Americans. Allensworth was created as a place where African Americans could become self-sufficient and live free of racial discrimination.

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The Greater Antilles include Cuba, Jamaica, Haiti, the Dominican Republic, and Puerto Rico. The Lesser Antilles, extending in an arc from Puerto Rico to the northeastern coast of South America, include the Virgin Islands, Windward Islands, Leeward Islands, southern group of the Netherlands Antilles ...

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Robert Fay

Located near the city of Aswan, the Aswan High Dam provoked controversy even before it was constructed. The United States had promised funds to Egyptian leader Gamal Abdel Nasser to underwrite the construction of the dam. Egypt claimed nonalignment during the Cold War—that is, it allied with neither the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) nor the United States. However, while seeking funding for the dam, Egypt completed an arms deal with the USSR In retaliation, the United States withdrew the funding offer, whereupon Nasser nationalized the Suez Canal claiming that revenue from the canal would offset the dam s construction costs This provoked an international conflict over control of the canal Nasser meanwhile secured funds from the USSR for one third of the dam s construction costs the total of which exceeded $1 billion The dam was an important part of Nasser s vision for Egypt He sought ...

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Jim Mendelsohn

Before the Civil War, the African American presence in Atlanta was smaller than in other Southern cities. Atlanta's black population consisted overwhelmingly of slaves who arrived between 1850 and 1860. Dispersed throughout Atlanta, they lacked a substantial community.

A postwar migration transformed the city. By 1870, African Americans comprised 46 percent of Atlanta's 21,700 residents, a proportion they maintained for the remainder of the nineteenth century. The community lacked political strength, however. In 1870, when the “Radical” forces of Reconstruction were at their peak in Atlanta, only two city councilmen were African Americans—William Finch and George Graham, from the predominantly black third and fourth wards. One year later, the state legislature effectively ended black political representation when it changed city elections in Georgia from a ward to an at-large selection process. After 1875 white hostility in Atlanta reached levels that many considered the ...

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Casey-Leininger Charles F.

Avondale is a neighborhood of the city of Cincinnati located northeast of the city's central business district. The 2010 US Census reported that Avondale had a population of 12,466 of which 89 percent identified as African American only, 7 percent identified as white only, and the remainder reported some other race or combination of races. Between about 1945 and 1965 the neighborhood was the scene of a massive population shift that saw its middle- and upper middle-class white population replaced by middle- and lower-income African Americans. During this period the neighborhood also became an important center of the city's African American cultural and political life.

Today Avondale is one of the poorest and most distressed neighborhoods in the city. Its poverty rate, calculated from the US Census Bureau's 2005–2009 American Community Survey ACS was 37 5 percent and 44 percent of its working age population had no employment In ...

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Jim Mendelsohn

During the American Revolution, African Americans in Baltimore fought for both the British and the American armies. After the war, many freed slaves settled in the city, beginning the development of a free black community that was unusually large for a proslavery city. By 1850 the city was home to 25,442 free blacks, constituting 15 percent of Baltimore's population. By contrast, the city's slave population was less than 3,000.

In 1789 Baltimore Quakers organized an abolitionist movement that would come to be led by both whites—notably Benjamin Lundy and William Lloyd Garrison—and free blacks such as William Watkins. At about the same time, a strong, sometimes outspoken African American community developed around black religious institutions. Daniel Coker and his colleagues organized the African Methodist Episcopal Conference (1816), while other black leaders established St. James Episcopal Church (1827 and founded the first black women s ...

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SaFiya D. Hoskins

political administrator and lawyer, was born Constance Ernestine Berry in Chicago, Illinois, the daughter of Ernestine Siggers and Joseph Alonzo Berry. Her mother was a social worker and a nurse, her father was a physician. Berry was young when the family relocated to Tuskegee, Alabama, where she was reared and attended Tuskegee Institute High School located on the campus of Tuskegee University a private historically black university established in 1881. She was a member of the Government Club and an honor roll student. Upon graduating from high school in 1952, Berry enrolled at Bates College in Lewiston, Maine, where she earned a Bachelor of Arts degree in Political Science in 1956. Three years later, in 1959 she graduated with a Juris Doctorate from the University of Minnesota Law School The same year she was married to Theodore Newman a member of the United States ...

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Sarah Russell

Nestled in the Jones Valley of north central Alabama, the rocky, mineral-rich land of Jefferson County has sustained a city known in its youth for rapid industrialization and later for its hard-fought battles to overcome social, political, and economic inequality. Since its incorporation in 1871, Birmingham, Alabama, pursued the economic development of a southern Magic City. By the 1960s the efforts of the local government to maintain racial Segregation had earned Birmingham a new name, the Tragic City. Efforts to remedy a history of pervasive racial inequality continue today throughout Birmingham, through alliances among citizens that were once thought impossible.

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In 1852, during California’s gold rush, there were 464 African Americans living in San Francisco. A good percentage came to the city with little money, yet great entrepreneurial skill. Mifflin W. Gibbs was one, arriving in 1850 from Philadelphia with 10 cents in his pocket. He quickly began earning a living as a bootblack, taking in as much as $15 a day. In a short time Gibbs partnered with fellow Philadelphian Peter Lester, a skilled bootmaker, to open the Pioneer Boot and Shoe Emporium. Their success reached the notice of fellow East Coast anti-slavery associates, boasting of their achievement in several abolitionist papers. They confirmed that Gibbs and Lester were examples that African Americans in California prospered at a rate far exceeding those in the eastern United States.

But all was not perfect for blacks in the great state of California Though it was not a slavery state California ...

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Christopher R. Reed

During November 2008 a group of scholars in Chicago who shared a common interest in both their city and its people and history assembled fittingly at the Du Sable Museum of African American History to formally organize the Black Chicago History Forum. The original planners who attended the sixty-first meeting of the Association for the Study of African American History and Culture in Chicago in 1976 included Darlene Clark Hine, Robert T. Starks, Christopher R. Reed, and Eric Perkins. The founding members in attendance in November 2008 at the Du Sable Musuem included Darlene Clark Hine Robert T Starks Christopher R Reed Robert Howard Timuel Black and Charles V Hamilton Dempsey J Travis and Lerone Bennett Jr did not attend due to previous commitments With the venue selected representative of the institutional vitality of African American research on Chicago the group broached the problem of choosing the most functional ...

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Black Los Angeles: American Dreams and Racial Realities is an anthology edited by Darnell Hunt and Ana-Christina Ramon providing a multifaceted analysis of neighborhoods of metropolitan Los Angeles that are either currently or historically predominantly black. The contributions selected by the editors highlight the rich history of accomplishment and survival in Los Angeles's community of color as it continuously confronts challenges to the geographical space of the community; shifts in local and national policy; the changing dynamics around race, social class, gender, and sexual identity; shifts in the opportunity structure for residents; and the realities of environmental and economic risk. The volume is organized into four parts: Space, People, Image, and Action It begins with a look at the historical foundations of the black community of Los Angeles and ends with a more contemporary question of now what for readers via series of action research chapters ...

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Kate Tuttle

Although residential segregation is often considered one of the more harmful effects of racism in the United States, some African Americans in the nineteenth century chose to form their own racially separate communities. Unlike the ghettos and rural enclaves where many blacks were forced to live at the time, black towns were established to promote economic independence, self-government, and social equality for African Americans. More than eighty such towns were settled in the fifty years following the Civil War.

A few, such as New Philadelphia, Illinois, were formed even before the Civil War, but it was not until after Emancipation in the United States that the population of free blacks was large enough to supply settlers for the new towns. The first great wave of black migration began as Reconstruction ended in 1877 When federal troops withdrew from the South many blacks feared that the civil and political ...

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Kathleen Thompson

Black women have been the cultural, social, and economic support of black towns in America for centuries. There were Senegalese enclaves in Louisiana in the 1700s. In the late eighteenth century, Star Hill, Delaware, was created by free blacks on land they acquired from the Quaker community in Camden. Brooklyn, Illinois, was founded by free blacks and fugitive slaves in 1820. As early as 1830, Frank McWhorter, or “Free Frank,” had founded the town of New Philadelphia, Illinois. Sandy Ground, New York, was created by black oyster fishermen fleeing the restrictions on free blacks in Maryland.

In 1825Elijah Roberts and his wife Kessiah led a group of free African Americans, many of whom were part Cherokee, from North Carolina to Hamilton County, Indiana, to start a settlement. Many of the settlers were members of the Roberts family, which had been free since 1734 ...

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Eric R. Jackson

By the 1970s Bond Hill had become the destination for thousands of local African American residents. Just like their non–African American counterparts, persons of color moved to this region, which was located just a thirty-minute drive from downtown Cincinnati, Ohio (also known as the “Queen City”), in a quest for better jobs and a higher quality of life. This process was not easy or simple. It required, in some ways, a dramatic transformation in migration patterns and racial attitudes, as well as both the economic and residential patterns of the community. Nonetheless this conversion took place and was championed by thousands of African American Cincinnatians. But during the 1930s this change would have not been predicated so soon after the establishment of Bond Hill as a community entity.

Gradually between the late 1930s and the late 1950s thousands of Cincinnatians began to move into regions outside the central city business ...

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Boston  

Paul Finkelman

Boston, sometimes called the “Cradle of Liberty,” was the birthplace of the American Revolution. Before the Civil War the city was home to the most radical and vocal opponents of slavery, a (usually safe) haven for fugitive slaves, and the largest city in which blacks had full political and legal equality. For blacks nineteenthcentury Boston was a place of promise and hope, but it was not always a place where promises could be fulfilled or hopes realized. Even in Boston there was racism and segregation.

The first black known in Boston arrived in 1638. Most, but certainly not all, slaves in the Massachusetts colony were urban, living in Boston, Cambridge, and Newberryport. In 1750 slaves constituted 20 percent of the Cambridge population Slave owners tended to be merchants and artisans who used slaves as laborers and skilled workmen The maritime industry was also the destination of many Boston ...