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SaFiya D. Hoskins

political administrator and lawyer, was born Constance Ernestine Berry in Chicago, Illinois, the daughter of Ernestine Siggers and Joseph Alonzo Berry. Her mother was a social worker and a nurse, her father was a physician. Berry was young when the family relocated to Tuskegee, Alabama, where she was reared and attended Tuskegee Institute High School located on the campus of Tuskegee University a private historically black university established in 1881. She was a member of the Government Club and an honor roll student. Upon graduating from high school in 1952, Berry enrolled at Bates College in Lewiston, Maine, where she earned a Bachelor of Arts degree in Political Science in 1956. Three years later, in 1959 she graduated with a Juris Doctorate from the University of Minnesota Law School The same year she was married to Theodore Newman a member of the United States ...

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Adam Jones

traveler and writer from what is now southern Ghana, was born c. 1827 in or near the Asante capital of Kumasi. In contemporary documents, his name often appears as Aquassie Boachi. His father Kwaku Dua (c.1797–1867) was Asantehene (King of Asante) from 1834 to 1867. According to the “History of Ashanti,” prepared in the mid-twentieth century under the chairmanship of Asantehene Prempeh II (1892–1970), Kwasi Boakye belonged to the village of Atomfuo, 8 miles (13 km) east of Kumasi. This suggests that on his mother’s side he came from the lineage of royal blacksmiths, which may explain why, in 1837 in accordance with his father s wishes he and a close relative of the same age Kwame Poku were chosen to accompany a Dutch embassy under Major General Jan Verveer on its return to Elmina on the coast They were subsequently brought to ...

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Charles Rosenberg

Baltimore area leader of the Congress On Racial Equality (CORE), and founder of Activists for Fair Housing, was born in Monroe, North Carolina, the son of Walter L. and Carrie P. Carter. Census records suggest he had at least four older sisters and an older brother, as well as a younger sister.

Carter entered North Carolina Agricultural and Technical College (NCAT) in 1941, but his studies were interrupted for military service in World War II. He enlisted as a private at Greensboro on 15 December 1942, was assigned to the Signal Corps (Natl. Archives WW II Army Enlistment Records, Record Group 64), and won five battle stars (MD House Joint Resolution 29, 26 Apr. 1972). Discharged in June 1946, Carter resumed studies at NCAT where he worked on voter registration campaigns participated in the campus debate team and joined the Progressive Party Many Americans ...

Article

Jonathan Morley

Journalist and activist born to wealthy parents, against whom she rebelled. Cunard became a well‐known figure in the London modernist movement, and throughout the busiest period in her career, the 1930s, was a controversial advocate of black emancipation in the United States and Africa.

At 855 pages long, weighing nearly 8 pounds, with 150 contributors, the NEGRO anthology of 1934 was Cunard's most ambitious publication: a collection of essays, polemics, and poetry from France, Britain, and America designed to highlight the vibrancy of the black world and to lobby for black freedom. Writers of interest include the future African presidents Jomo Kenyatta and Nnamdi Azikiwe, the Pan‐Africanists George Padmore and W. E. B. DuBois, the black modernist novelist Zora Neale Hurston, and the poets Nicolás Guillen, Langston Hughes, Sterling Brown, Countee Cullen, Alain Locke, William Carlos Williams, Ezra Pound who ...

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Linda M. Carter

missionary and founding father of the state of Liberia, was born in Hicksford, Greensville County, Virginia, the elder son of John Day Sr., an affluent furniture maker, farmer, and landowner, and Mourning Stewart Day. The Days were free African Americans, and Day's father, as early as the 1789 election, was accorded voting status.

In an era when formal education for African Americans was rare, Day reaped the benefits of being the offspring of two prominent families. His father arranged for him to board in Edward Whitehorne's home, and Day, along with the Whitehorne children, attended Jonathan Bailey's school. While residing with the family, Day received some level of religious instruction from Whitehorne. In 1807 Day's father, who had been residing in Dinwiddie County, Virginia, purchased a plantation in Sussex County, Virginia, near the Whitehorne residence, and Day then attended William Northcross's school.

At the age of nineteen ...

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Alexander J. Chenault

the first black popularly elected governor of the United States Virgin Islands, Delegate to the United States House of Representatives, and ambassador, was born in Christiansted, St. Croix, Virgin Islands, to Charles and Maude (Rogiers) Evans. He attended the Christiansted Public Grammar and Junior High schools and completed his secondary education at the Charlotte Amalie High School in St. Thomas, where he graduated as valedictorian of his class.

At the age of nineteen, Evans moved to Washington, D.C., and studied at Howard University, where he graduated magna cum laude in 1940. In 1944 he received his medical degree with honors from the Howard University Medical School. Evans married Mary Phyllis Anderson, a nurse he met while completing his medical internship at Harlem Hospital in New York City in 1945, and they had four sons together: Melvin Herbert Jr., Robert Rogiers, William Charles and ...

Article

Richard A. Bradshaw and Juan Fandos-Rius

Central African Republic (CAR) diplomat, was named Galingui at his birth on 4 June 1920 at Limassa, a town next to the Ubangi River in what is now Mbomou prefecture in southeastern CAR. His parents were members of the Yakoma ethnic group, one of several communities on both sides of the Ubangi River who speak dialects of the Ngbandi language, which belongs to the Adamawa-Ubangi branch of the Niger-Congo family. As French explorers and colonists moved up the Ubangi River at the turn of the 20th century, they took many Yakoma into their employ and the descendants of these Yakoma auxiliaries often had privileged access to French education and assimilated French culture to a greater degree than most Central Africans. Galingui’s life exemplifies this process.

Galingui attended École urbaine (urban primary school) in Bangui, the capital of Ubangi-Shari, and then École Edouard-Renard in Brazzaville from December 1936 to 1939 ...

Article

Michael Niblett

Religious title Mahatma Gandhi (1869–1948), political leader and social reformer often regarded as the ‘father’ of modern India and one of the most influential figures of the 20th century. The series of non‐violent civil disobedience campaigns he led against British colonial rule between 1919 and 1942 brought him to worldwide prominence. Although never holding high political office, the aura of spiritual authority he projected is frequently seen as having enabled Gandhi to transform India's nationalist struggle from an elitist political campaign into a mass moral crusade. As a result, he had a considerable impact on Britain too. From 1919 onwards, every British Cabinet had to contend with the Mahatma; his erosion of the moral credibility of colonial power in India was pivotal to Britain's reassessment of its role as an imperial nation.

Gandhi was born in India in the town of Porbandar on the south west coast of ...

Article

Adam W. Green

academic and writer, was born in Tashkent, Uzbekistan, to Oliver John Golden, an African American agronomist, and Bertha Bialek, an English teacher of Polish-Jewish descent. Communist sympathizers who found life in America as an interracial couple extremely difficult, Oliver and Bertha led an expedition of sixteen African American agricultural experts to the Soviet Union in 1931 in an attempt to assist the USSR's agricultural development, specifically the cotton industry in Uzbekistan. Shortly after Golden's birth, her parents were offered work at universities in Tashkent, capital of the then-named Uzbek Soviet Socialist Republic. In 1937 the family was given an ultimatum by the Soviet government to leave the country or renounce their American citizenship As Golden later wrote Neither my father nor my mother was inclined to take their newly born child back to the racism and intolerance that they had experienced in the United States p 15 ...

Article

Charles Rosenberg

a trained agronomist who organized a team to help the Soviet Union develop its economy, and remained in the Uzbek Soviet Socialist Republic until his death, was born on a cotton farm in Yazoo County, Mississippi, the son of Hilliard and Catherine Golden.

Golden's father was born in Mississippi in 1844, to parents born in North Carolina, while his mother was born in Texas, to a father born in North Carolina and a mother born in Virginia. He had older sisters born between the years 1862 and 1886 (Mary, Martha, Elizabeth, Rebecca, Biddie, Miriam, Virginia Mamie), and younger brothers and sisters born between 1891 to 1900 (Willie, Lily, and Viola). Golden's parents and grandparents had all been enslaved from birth until 1863 After emancipation Hilliard Golden saved money to acquire a substantial cotton farm but ...

Article

Charles Rosenberg

a singer who lived for over thirty years in Russia, both under Tsar Nicholas and during the first decades of the Soviet Union, was born in Augusta, Georgia, according to her 1901 passport application. Some accounts give her year of birth as 1870. Multiple passport applications give 1875. Census records suggest she may have been the daughter of John and Ann Harris, who in 1880 were illiterate tenant farmers in Carnesville, Franklin County, northwest of Augusta. The subsequent history of her older brothers, Andrew J. and Henry Harris, and younger sister Lulu, are unknown.

In 1892Harris married Joseph B. Harris (no relation), moving with him to Brooklyn, where she worked as a domestic and directed a Baptist church choir. She went to Europe in May 1901 as a member of the “Louisiana Amazon Guards,” a singing group assembled by the German promoter Paule ...

Article

colonial official and explorer, was born on 17 July 1858 in Chandernagor, a tiny city and former French colonial enclave in southern India. When Liotard's parents, Pierre Liotard and Hélène Liotard (née Durup de Dombal), died while Victor-Théophile was a very young boy, several families of doctors and pharmacists helped to raise Liotard. With their support Liotard eventually studied at a secondary school in Rochefort, France. He enrolled at the Ecole de Médicine Navale in Rochefort in 1882 after a short stay in Guadeloupe in the Caribbean. On 28 July 1883 Liotard graduated from medical school with a degree as a pharmacist. From 1884 to 1885 Liotard served on the Iles du Salut in French Guiana South America where he helped to battle a yellow fever epidemic Reassigned briefly to Cherbourg the French naval headquarters Liotard received orders to serve in the French colonial medical service in the ...

Article

John Gilmore

Historian of Jamaica and writer on slavery. Long was born in England, a member of a family that had long been settled in Jamaica and owned plantations there. Long himself spent only twelve years (1757–69) in Jamaica, where he was a judge, a member of the House of Assembly, and (for a very brief period) its Speaker, but he always identified himself with the interests of the Jamaican plantocracy, that is, the group of white landowners whose prosperity depended on the ownership of sugar plantations worked by slaves.

Long's major work was The History of Jamaica (1774 This contains an enormous amount of information on all aspects of the island and is still an essential source for historians of the Caribbean However the work is strongly marked by his partisan support for the plantocracy which leads him not only to emphasize Jamaica s importance to Britain ...

Article

Ethan Michael Key

also known as Gebre Egziabher Moroda, was the governor of Leqa Naqamte, Wallaga, Ethiopia, from 1889 until his death in 1923. Bearing the title of dejazmach, Kumsa ruled one of the semiautonomous kingdoms in western Oromia during the period of its integration into the Abyssinian Empire. Kumsa devoted a significant part of his effort, therefore, to maintaining local autonomy while adapting to new circumstances within the Abyssinian imperial system.

Kumsa’s grandfather Bakare established a familial dynasty in the area of Naqamte in the mid-nineteenth century as the traditional Oromo political structure of the gada system began to fracture. According to historian Bairu Tafla, Bakare was elected to bless the chafe, or assembly, inaugurating the new gada period In gratitude for this special benediction Bakare could ask anything he desired of the assembly and it would be granted by their unanimous will Bakare cognizant of the material ...

Article

Kenneth J. Blume

educator and diplomat, was born in Troy, New York, to William and Julian (Crawford) Powell. He was educated in Brooklyn and Jersey City, New Jersey, and graduated from the New Jersey Collegiate Institute, the New York College of Pharmacy, and the Ashmun Institute (named for Jehudi Ashmun, a white American administrator in 1820s Liberia, and later renamed Lincoln University) in Chester County, Pennsylvania.

In 1869 Powell was teaching freedmen at the Presbyterian Board of Home Mission, in Leesburg, Virginia. The following year he opened what is believed to be Virginia's first state school for black children in Alexandria, and he served as its director from 1870 to 1875. With few exceptions the rest of his career centered on education in New Jersey. He served as the principal of a school in Bordentown, New Jersey, from 1875 to 1881, and in 1881 he obtained a ...

Article

Peter J. Duignan

fifth president of the Republic of Liberia, was born in Newark, Ohio, the son of John Roye, a wealthy merchant. His mother's name is unknown. His father died in 1829, leaving some personal property and land to Roye. He went to public schools in Ohio, attended Oberlin College, and taught for a few years in Chillicothe. He also tried his hand as a sheep trader and shopkeeper in various parts of the Midwest. After his mother died in 1840 he was influenced by the emigration movement to escape American prejudice. He rejected the idea of going to Haiti and instead traveled to Liberia in 1846 just before an independent republic was installed there in July 1847, taking with him a stock of goods.

At the time of Roye s arrival the new republic faced a variety of ills The dominant Americo Liberians remained a small minority threatened ...

Article

Yevette Richards Jordan

labor leader and Pan-Africanist, was born Maida Stewart in Panama, the daughter of Adina Stewart Carrington, a beautician, and Harold Stewart, a worker on the Panama Canal Zone project. At the age of seven she immigrated with her parents to the United States and settled in Harlem, and soon after they arrived, her parents separated. From 1923 to 1926 Springer attended the Manual Training and Industrial School for Colored Youth in Bordentown, New Jersey, a boarding school renowned for its teaching staff but encumbered by the industrial model of education advocated by Booker T. Washington. Not until 1927 did the school expand beyond its focus vocational training by offering a more academic curriculum that could lead to a high school diploma. The commandant of the school was Lester Granger with whom Springer would later share a friendship and working relationship when he served as executive director ...

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John Saillant

colonizationist, statesman, editor, and author of the Liberian Declaration of Independence, was born in Goochland County, Virginia, the son of Colin or Collin Teage (1785–1839), probably a slave on the plantation of Joshua Nicholson. His mother (name unknown) was probably also a slave in the Nicholson household. Details of Hilary Teage's early life are sketchy. Colin Teage was an artisan who made stable gear, a position above that of a field laborer but one that led to his separation from his family when he was sold in 1807 to the owners of a Richmond tack shop. Sometime in the next thirteen years, Colin Teage was licensed to preach in Baptist churches and saved enough money to purchase the freedom of his wife, son, and daughter in 1819 and 1820 and to reassemble his family He bought land in Henrico County outside Richmond ...