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Article

Amar Wahab

Mission to provide shelter to the black poor in Liverpool. In the midst of economic depression, spreading poverty, and growing racism, the African Churches Mission was opened in Liverpool in 1931 by Pastor Daniels Ekarte. Funded by the Church of Scotland, the Mission became a meeting point for many in need. Moreover, it became a refuge for Liverpool's black community in the face of worsening poverty and deprivation. It was the site from which Pastor Ekarte himself politicized around issues of racial inequality.

The Mission also provided shelter to those in need including families affected by the air raids as well as stowaways and homeless people Pastor Ekarte was heavily involved in raising funds to address humanitarian concerns He was helped by many of the women who provided secretarial and bookkeeping assistance and who also did the cooking and housekeeping The Mission also played a critical role in ...

Article

Kate Tuttle

In the history of South Africa, no group is more identified with the struggle against Apartheid—the system of racial segregation instituted by the country's former white-minority government—than the African National Congress (ANC). Many groups participated in the country's Antiapartheid Movement, but it was the ANC’s Nelson Mandela who, through negotiations with the ruling National Party, finally brought about apartheid's demise. In South Africa's first free elections in 1994, the ANC won the majority of legislative seats and the presidency. From its founding in 1912 by middle class college educated black South Africans the ANC has grown from an interest group to a protest movement and finally to the instrument of freedom for South Africa s black majority Although the organization has undergone periods of considerable internal dissent it has proven capable of compromise and growth and has consistently embraced a vision of equality for ...

Article

Kate Tuttle

Stephen Biko’s death at the age of thirty robbed South Africa of one of its most popular and effective antiapartheid activists and gave the movement its most famous martyr. Memorialized in the 1987 film Cry Freedom, Biko became an international symbol of the brutal repression facing those who fought racial injustice in South Africa.

The third of four children, Stephen Biko grew up in the all-black Ginsberg area of King William’s Town, in the Eastern Cape. He was only four when his father, a policeman, died. When Biko was sixteen the town raised money to send him to the Lovedale Institution, the school that his older brother Khaya attended. Shortly after Biko arrived, Khaya was arrested on suspicion of belonging to the banned Pan-Africanist Congress (PAC). Although Khaya was later acquitted, both brothers were expelled from the school. Biko completed his studies in 1965 at St ...

Article

Mark Sebba

A broad term covering a range of ways in which Caribbean Creole (commonly known as patois, or patwa) is combined with British varieties of English, resulting in one of the following:

(a) a Creole‐influenced variety of British English;

(b) a variety of Creole influenced by local British varieties of English;

(c) a speech style involving mixing of English and Creole in conversation;

(d) a style of ‘street language’ or ‘slang’ associated with adolescents.

It is mostly spoken by black British people of Caribbean heritage (though not everyone in this category would use it), but in its sense of a ‘street language’ it has many users outside the black community, among adolescents of all ethnicities.

Black British English BBE is not confined to spoken language but can also be found in much informal written language particularly among younger people who draw on BBE ...

Article

Liliana Obregón

The Black Codes comprise an elaborate set of principles, rules, and procedures that were designed to protect plantation economies and prevent slaves from running away. But because they conflicted with the slaveholders' actual interests and practices—the codes specified minimal standards for slaves' food and clothing, restrictions on punishments, and means of achieving manumission—they were rarely implemented. Nevertheless, the codes give insight into the working conditions, economic interests, and social practices of the French Caribbean and Spanish American slave societies they addressed. These laws contrast with those relating to slavery in the Portuguese colony of Brazil; the Brazilian laws were never codified, though compilations were published to instruct slaveholders on their rights and responsibilities.

Article

Covering a total area of 44,000 sq km (16,988 sq mi), Bophuthatswana consisted of seven fragments of land scattered throughout Orange Free State, Cape Province, and Transvaal, which were three of the four provinces in South Africa at that time. Bophuthatswana, which means “that which binds the Tswana together,” was established as a so-called homeland for the Tswana people, although it had significant Pedi, Basotho, Shangaan, and Zulu minorities. Bophuthatswana’s capital was Mmabatho. The territory also included the towns of Mafikeng, Onverwacht, Phalaborwa, Phuthaditjhaba, Sun City, and Thaba Nchu. In 1994, when South Africa was divided into nine new provinces, most of Bophuthatswana was incorporated into North-West Province; the remaining fragment was included in the province of Free State.

Tswana peoples lived in the region from about the thirteenth or fourteenth century c.e.., but they lost most of their land in the nineteenth century to Afrikaner ...

Article

Alonford James Robinson

Pieter Willem Botha was raised in a militantly nationalistic Afrikaner family in the Eastern Cape. His mother’s first husband was killed in the Boer War (1899–1902), in which his father also fought for the Boers. At an early age Botha himself became an Afrikaner nationalist, leaving the University of Orange Free State Law School in 1935 to help found the National Party. A year later he became public information officer for the party and served on the Sauer Commission, the agency that helped to formulate the National Party’s racial program.

In 1948 Botha proved instrumental in helping D. F. Malan and the National Party come to power. That year he won a seat in Parliament, representing the Eastern Cape district of George. As a reward for party loyalty, Botha was appointed to a series of cabinet positions in the apartheid-era governments of Hendrik Verwoerd and Balthazar Johannes Vorster ...

Article

Article

Kate Tuttle

The son of an Afrikaner magistrate, André Brink grew up moving from village to village in rural South Africa, each characterized, he says, by “conservative Protestantism … generosity and narrow-mindedness.” After receiving master’s degrees in English and Afrikaans from Potchefstroom University, Brink went to Paris in 1959 to study at the Sorbonne. By his own assessment, the 1960Sharpeville massacre in South Africa (in which the police killed at least sixty-nine innocent protesters) sparked in him a new political awareness and prompted him to return home in 1961.

Brink began to write fiction while lecturing at Rhodes University. Two novels published in the early 1960s were largely apolitical, but his views on writing changed after he spent 1968 in Paris where he witnessed student uprisings Brink came to believe that in a closed society the writer has a specific social and moral role to fill His next ...

Article

About 900 men from British Honduras (now Belize) were brought to Britain in 1941 and 1942 by the ministries of Supply and Labour to meet the expanding demand for civilian forestry workers. While the recruitment was based on a perceived labour shortage in Britain, it was also thought to help alleviate the growing unemployment, starvation, and suffering in British Honduras. The men were effectively indentured labourers who signed a contract with the British government. Among other conditions, their contracts provided for free transport to and from the forestry camps in Britain, free medical services, and a three‐year term of engagement, after which they would be immediately returned home. The workers who comprised what was known as the British Honduran Forestry Unit were based in three camps in the north and south of Scotland.

While a welfare officer was assigned to look after the men they faced a range of adverse ...

Article

Brixton  

Cecily Jones

South London suburb that has been home since the 1940s to thousands of African Caribbean immigrants whose presence has contributed to the making of an energetic and multicultural melting pot in the United Kingdom Like one of its main roads Electric Avenue so named because it was the first ...

Article

Born in what is now the province of KwaZulu-Natal, Mangosutho Buthelezi is related to the Zulu royal family through his mother, Princess Magogo. He is descended from Cetshwayo, a Zulu king who ruled in the late 1800s. Buthelezi’s father, who was chief of the Buthelezi ethnic group, died when Buthelezi was fourteen years old. Buthelezi’s uncle, Maliyamakhanda, was appointed regent to govern the ethnic group until Buthelezi was ready to assume the role of chief.

Buthelezi received his early education at Christian mission schools. He then attended South African Native College (now the University of Fort Hare) in Alice. During college Buthelezi joined the African National Congress (ANC) Youth League. He was subsequently expelled from college because of his political activities, but in 1951 he received his degree in history and Bantu administration a discipline designed to train black South Africans for certain government positions from the ...

Article

Charlotte Williams

Capital city of Wales and home to one of the oldest black communities in Europe. The first black settlers were seamen from Africa, the West Indies, and America, and arrived in Cardiff around the middle of the 19th century. This was at a time when the city was enjoying a period of economic growth, having started on the road to becoming the major coal port by the late 19th century. Attracted by the prospect of employment, many seamen stayed and made the docklands area of Butetown (disparagingly known as Tiger Bay) their home. Many, too, married or befriended local white women and raised families. Indeed, such was the multiracial population of Butetown that it was popularly said you could see the world in 1 square mile.

Cardiff's economic growth was relatively short‐lived, however, and went into a steep decline soon after the First World War When returning Welsh servicemen ...

Article

Elizabeth Heath

European colonization of Africa followed a long history of contact between the two continents. Ancient Egyptian trade in the Mediterranean predates recorded history, and contact between Europe and other parts of North Africa dates back to the Greco-Roman period. Not until the fifteenth century, however, did the Portuguese establish trading posts on the sub-Saharan African shoreline. Although some early ports, such as Cape Town, became permanent settlements, the majority served as little more than entrepôts for the exchange of African and European goods. Over the next 400 years Europeans acquired slaves, gold, ivory, and later agricultural commodities from coastal traders and rulers, but—with the exception of South Africa and a handful of Portuguese holdings made few attempts to settle or otherwise control the interior By the second half of the nineteenth century however rapidly industrializing European economies needed reliable access to natural resources new markets for their manufactured ...

Article

Muhammad Anwar

Statutory body established to combat racial discrimination, and to promote equality of opportunity and good race relations. The Commission for Racial Equality (CRE) was set up under the Race Relations Act 1976 and started its work in June 1977. However, it was in 1965 that the first Race Relations Act in Britain was passed as a first step towards eliminating racial discrimination.

The Race Relations Board, set up under the 1965 Act, coordinated the work of nine regional conciliation committees established to deal with complaints of racial discrimination. The Act dealt only with discrimination in places of public resort, but the majority of complaints received were about employment, housing, and the police. As a result, the second Race Relations Act of 1968 made racial discrimination in employment housing and the provision of goods facilities and services including education unlawful The Race Relations Board was given powers to investigate ...

Article

Herman Giliomee

the first academic propagandist of apartheid, was born in Barrydale in the Cape Province, the youngest of fourteen children. He married Marie Pretorius in 1939; the couple had three sons, and Marie predeceased him in 1962. Cronjé received his first degrees from the University of Stellenbosch and went on the University of Amsterdam, where he received a doctoral degree in 1933, writing on divorce and the breakup of families. He was the first South African to receive a doctoral degree in sociology. In 1937 he was appointed professor of sociology at the University of Pretoria. More interested in social work and criminology than in classical sociology, he played a major role in getting the state to register white social workers.

Cronjé was the first academic to publish book-length studies propagating apartheid, published on the eve of the apartheid era. The books were entitled as follows: ‘n ...

Article

F. W. De Klerk was born to an Afrikaner family with a long history of involvement in South African politics. His own political career began during adolescence, when he joined the youth section of the Afrikaner-dominated National Party.

In 1958 De Klerk received a law degree from Potchef- stroom University. He practiced law in Veereniging from 1961 until 1972, all the while serving as chairman of the local chapter of the National Party. He then abandoned his law career and became a member of Parliament in South Africa. De Klerk rose quickly through the party’s rank and file, with appointments to numerous cabinet posts. As a minister he had little patience for antiapartheid protests but was known as a conciliator within the party.

After South African president Pieter Willem Botha had a heart attack in 1989 De Klerk became the leader of the National Party Later that ...

Article

Kate Tuttle

Situated on the Eastern Cape of South Africa, Durban is the capital of the KwaZulu-Natal province and the country’s most active seaport. It is surrounded by the Drakensburg Mountain range to the west, the Indian Ocean to the east, and the rolling hills of KwaZulu-Natal to the north and south. Although the area had been visited by European traders and explorers starting in the sixteenth century, its natural harbor was not fully utilized until the British came in 1824. They acquired land through treaties with the Zulu king Shaka, and named their settlement Port Natal. In 1835 the city’s name was changed to Durban, after Sir Benjamin D’Urban, then governor of the Cape Colony.

By 1855 Durban s British colony had begun exploiting the harbor which continues to export raw materials and manufactured goods from the entire Witwatersrand region In addition to trade Durban s economy ...

Article

Jane Poyner

While there are cases in earlier periods where we have some evidence about the education of individual black people (such as that of Francis Barber) or members of particular professions (e.g. doctors a more general picture only begins to emerge with the growing black presence from the middle ...

Article

The history of formal education in Latin America and the Caribbean is also the history of how blacks were systematically denied access to educational institutions and blocked from helping to form the new social organizations that emerged after the end of Colonial Rule. The story of Afro–Latin American education falls into three periods: the colonial period that continued into the nineteenth century, the postabolition period that began in the 1830s in most countries, and the contemporary period that began in the 1970s.