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Gregory Travis Bond

athlete and educator, was born in Glencairn, Virginia, to Lindsay Jackson, a plumber, and Mary Jane (Smith) Jackson, a domestic worker. The family moved to nearby Alexandria, and while in high school Jackson worked as a barber's apprentice. In 1883 he entered the Virginia Normal and Collegiate Institute (now Virginia State University) in Petersburg, a segregated public college. While at school he became good friends with fellow Virginian William Henry Lewis. Jackson and Lewis were heavily involved in campus politics, and both left the school in 1887 after Democratic state legislators forced the school's president, the civil rights activist John Mercer Langston, to resign.

The following year, probably with Langston's help, Lewis and Jackson, who was known to his contemporaries simply as “Sherman Jackson,” entered Amherst College in central Massachusetts. George Washington Forbes another African American entered Amherst that year and the ...

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Ramona Hoage Edelin

professor, coach, and civic leader, was born in Chester, South Carolina, the eldest of sixteen children of William Charles and Susie (Jackson) Lewis. Only five of the children lived past early childhood. Lewis's father was born on 11 March 1854, the son of an enslaved woman. He was permitted to obtain an education by learning with the white children of the household and, later, by attending public school. He later taught school in Chester County, South Carolina. He and Susie, always a homemaker, raised their surviving children in a two-story house and farm on York Road in Chester.

William Charles Lewis II attended the Brainard Academy in Chester, a private school of the Presbyterian Church. He graduated with a three-year trade certificate in harness making from Virginia's Hampton Normal and Agricultural Institute (later Hampton University) and in 1907 was a football player and coach ...

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Paul Stillwell

naval officer, was born in Tobacco Port, Tennessee, the son of Charles, a tobacco farmer, and Carrie Martin; he had two sisters and one brother. For the first few years of his life, Martin lived on a farm in Tennessee, near the Cumberland River. When Martin was about five or six years old, his father died. Because she was unable to keep up the farm, his mother moved to Indianapolis, Indiana, where she became a seamstress. Graham Martin, by then seven or eight, went with his mother, while his siblings remained in Tennessee. He attended segregated public schools and had to deal with the Jim Crow practices of his new home city. For instance, blacks had to sit in the balconies of movie theaters, and the sports teams on which Martin played were not allowed to compete against teams from local all-white schools.

As he recalled in ...

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Nadine McIlwain

associate justice of the Minnesota Supreme Court, defensive lineman, and NFL star football player for the Minnesota Vikings and Chicago Bears, was born in Canton, Ohio, the youngest of four children of Howard Page, a nightclub owner, and Georgianna Page, a country club locker-room attendant. Like most black families in Canton, the Pages lived on the town's Southeast side. His parents' salaries provided for a standard of living that others in the heart of Canton's black community considered well-to-do. Page described his family's social status as “upper lower class” in an interview with journalist Larry Batson.

Regardless of status, the Page children, Marvel, Twila, Howard Jr., and Alan suffered the same indignities and lack of opportunity as many postwar African American families The children attended Canton City Schools When Page was a fifth grader at South Market Elementary School Howard Page decided ...

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Angela Bates

professional football player, businessman, and historic preservationist, was the youngest of six children born to Fred and Ora Switzer of Nicodemus, an all African American town in northwestern Kansas. He grew up playing football on the dusty dirt streets of Nicodemus. He liked fishing and hunting and especially helping with farm chores. He attended grade school at Nicodemus until the eighth grade and then attended nearby Bogue High School. While in high school he played on the football and basketball teams and ran track. He lettered each year in all three sports.

Upon graduation in 1950, Switzer entered Kansas State University as one of the first African Americans to receive a football scholarship to the university. While at Kansas State he lettered three years in both football and track and was named to the All Big Seven three years in a row. In 1952 Switzer ...

Article

National Football league player, teacher, and Chrysler automobile executive, was born on 18 April 1926 in LaMott, Pennsylvania, to Mahlon Triplett and Estella Triplett. His father was a postal clerk and his mother was a housemaid. Triplett lived in LaMott for his entire childhood, playing baseball, basketball, and football while attending Cheltenham High School. Triplett was accepted by Pennsylvania State University and made the football team starting line at the position of right halfback during his sophomore year in 1946. This made him the first black athlete to earn a varsity letter at Penn State. In November 1946 Penn State canceled a game with Miami University because Miami had told Penn State to “leave the negro players at home” (Sargent), referring to Triplett. Penn State would not tolerate such treatment of its players, black or white. In 1948 Penn State played to a 13 ...