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Robert Fay

Aladura is a Yoruba word for “People of Prayer.” The name describes an informal religious movement that began during the first half of the twentieth century in West Africa, particularly Nigeria The movement has grown steadily since Aladura began mostly among members of mainline churches such as the Anglican Methodist or Baptist churches These members usually followed a charismatic man or woman or both who felt called to lead their members as prophets Some of the earliest such movements or churches were the Church of the Lord Aladura Christ Apostolic Church the Garrick Braide movement and the Cherubim and Seraphim The most popular and fastest growing of the Aladura churches in the 1990s included the Celestial Church of Christ and the Brotherhood of the Cross and Star which though established in Nigeria grew to include churches in Europe and the United States The members formed prayer groups thus the ...


André Willis

As performer, choreographer, and dance coach, Cholly Atkins mastered the art of the Tap Dance. He was best known for his team tap dancing with the great Charles “Honi” Coles.

Born in Birmingham, Alabama, and raised in Buffalo, New York, Atkins displayed a talent for the stage at an early age. He began performing at the age of ten, when he won a Charleston contest, and while attending high school he learned basic Jazz and soft-shoe dance steps. He began his formal career as a singing waiter in 1929. Soon he and dancing waiter William Porter formed the Rhythm Pals, a vaudeville song-and-dance team. After ten years, Atkins left the Rhythm Pals to begin dancing and choreographing for the Cotton Club Boys, a tap troupe that toured with Cab Calloway and performed with Bill “Bojangles” Robinson in a swing musical called The Hot Mikado at ...


Robert W. Logan

Bailey graced the worlds of movies, television, musical theater, nightclubs, and recordings with a dazzling smile, an engaging personality, and the sense that she was communicating personally with each individual member of her audience. An entertainer who methodically worked her way up the show business ladder, she was unassuming and unpretentious, but nevertheless a star whose charismatic presence illuminated stages and screens for more than fifty years.

Pearl Mae Bailey was born in Newport News, Virginia, to Joseph James and Ella Mae Bailey. Her father was a revivalist minister, and at the age of three she was already dancing and singing in his church. When she was four, the family moved to Washington, DC. When her parents separated, Bailey, the youngest of four children, stayed with her father, but eventually she joined her mother and siblings in Philadelphia, where her mother had remarried.

Bailey attended William Penn High ...


Sharon Carson

Although she spent most of her adult life living in France and touring the world, Josephine Baker was born in St. Louis, Missouri. After a difficult childhood, she left home at thirteen, starting her dance career with a vaudeville troupe called the Dixie Steppers. In the early 1920s, she worked in African American theater productions in New York such as Shuffle Along and Chocolate Dandies. In 1925 Baker left for Paris to begin her long international career with companies like Revue Nègre, Folies Bergères, and, later, the Ziegfeld Follies.

As her career evolved, Baker increasingly focused on political concerns. During World War II Baker toured North Africa while providing information to French and British intelligence. Later she used her considerable fame to advance civil rights issues during her frequent visits to the United States. In 1951 the NAACP honored her political work by declaring an official Baker Day ...


Marie-Françoise Christout

Baker was an African-American singer and dancer who became famous in Paris in the 1920s. She made her debut at the age of fourteen at the Booker T. Washington Theater in her home town, and subsequently went on tours. During this time she married first Willie Wells and then William Howard Baker, from whom, despite intervening liaisons and a pretended marriage to Count Pepito Abatino, she was not divorced until 1936. She was engaged in New York for the 1920s musical comedies Shuffle Along and The Chocolate Dandies.

Paris discovered Baker on 20 October 1925 when, with her partner Joe Alex, she appeared as the star of Noble Sissle's La Revue Nègre at the Théâtre des Champs-Élysées. The subject of much attention, she posed for Paul Colin, Pablo Picasso, Fujita Tsuguharu, Kees van Dongen, Man Ray, Henri Laurens, Alexander Calder and ...


US-born dancer and singer who became a star of the Paris music halls. She began her career as a chorus girl in an African-American revue in Philadelphia and also appeared at the Cotton Club in Harlem. In the 1920s she was hired to work on the New York musical comedies Shuffle Along and The Chocolate Dandies, but her career break came when she went to Paris in 1925 in La Revue nègre at the Théâtre des Champs-Elysées. Paris was charmed; she posed for Picasso and Man Ray; André Levinson called her the black Venus For her debut at the Folies Bergère she wore a belt of bananas and sang Yes We Have No Bananas She subsequently made the French capital her home As one of the first black international stars she performed regularly at the Folies Bergère and the Casino de Paris as well as on numerous ...


Lisa Clayton Robinson

For many people, Josephine Baker's name will always evoke a well-known, controversial image: the “Black Venus” naked onstage, except for a string of bananas around her waist, dancing to African drums before her white Parisian audiences. It was this image that first made Baker a star, one whose international fame lasted for five decades. But the picture of the exotic dancer does not fully capture the complexity of the woman who was one of the first black performers to transcend race and appeal to audiences of all colors around the world.

Baker was born in St. Louis, Missouri to Freda Josephine MacDonald the name Baker came from her second husband Her parents were not married her father was a drummer in a local band and her mother a washerwoman rarely had enough money to support Baker and her three younger half siblings At age eight Baker began working as ...


Patrick O'Connor

Baker, Josephine (03 June 1906–12 April 1975), dancer, singer, and civil rights activist, was born in St. Louis, Missouri, the daughter of Eddie Carson, a musician, and Carrie Macdonald. Her parents parted when Josephine was still an infant, and her mother married Arthur Martin, which has led to some confusion about her maiden name. Very little is known about her childhood, except that she was a witness to the East St. Louis riot in 1917. This event was often a feature of her talks in the 1950s and 1960s about racism and the fight for equality, which fostered the oft-repeated assertion that the family was resident in East St. Louis. Before the age of eighteen Josephine had been married twice, first to Willie Wells and then to William Baker, to whom she was married in Camden, New Jersey, in September 1921.

Josephine Baker like many other African ...


Karen C. Dalton

dancer, singer, and entertainer, was born in the slums of East St. Louis, Missouri, the daughter of Eddie Carson, a drummer, who abandoned Baker and her mother after the birth of a second child, and of Carrie McDonald, a onetime entertainer who supported what became a family of four by doing laundry. Poverty, dislocation, and mistreatment permeated Baker's childhood. By the age of eight she was earning her keep and contributing to the family's support by doing domestic labor. By the time Baker was fourteen, she had left home and its discord and drudgery; mastered such popular dances as the Mess Around and the Itch, which sprang up in the black urban centers of the day; briefly married Willie Wells and then divorced him and begun her career in the theater She left East St Louis behind and traveled with the Dixie Steppers on ...


Kariamu Welsh

Josephine Baker was the first and greatest black dancer to emerge in the genre now called “performance art.” She epitomized through dance what freedom of expression and artistic expression really meant for generations of artists worldwide. Baker was one of the few artists in the world who were acclaimed and awarded for being themselves. Her genius resided in her conception of music, dance, and comedy; she had a musician’s sense of timing, a dancer’s instinct for cutting a phrase, and a comedian’s ability to deliver a punch line even when it was in a song or gesture. Not merely an entertainer, Baker was in every sense of the word an artist, and it was as an artist that she made her mark on the world.

Baker was also a humanitarian who in her own unique and eccentric way tried to live by example She symbolized beauty elegance grace and most ...


Asli Tekinay

singer and dancer. Josephine Baker was born Freda Josephine McDonald in a poor black neighborhood in Saint Louis, Missouri. Her mother, Carrie MacDonald, was twenty-one years old at the time and worked as a laundry woman. Her father, Eddie Carson a vaudeville drummer left his wife a year after Josephine was born Josephine thus grew up fatherless and in poverty When she was eight years old her mother hired her out to a white woman as a maid From then on Josephine was on her own in life An ambitious and optimistic child she learned to dance in the back streets of Saint Louis She went to the zoo watched kangaroos camels and giraffes and imitated their movements She wanted to be a great dancer and live a glamorous life At the age of twelve she dropped out of school and at thirteen her professional life began ...


Alonford James Robinson

Clayton Bates was born in Fountain Inn, South Carolina. He lost his leg in a cottonseed mill accident at age twelve but decided at age fifteen to tour the country with a homemade wooden leg. Bates worked as a minstrel in racially integrated vaudeville circuits. He danced in Harlem ...


Constance Valis Hill

Bates, Peg Leg (11 October 1907–08 December 1998), tap dancer was born Clayton Bates in Fountain Inn South Carolina the son of Rufus Bates a laborer and Emma Stewart Bates a sharecropper and housecleaner He began dancing when he was five At twelve while working in a cotton seed gin mill he caught and mangled his left leg in a conveyor belt The leg was amputated on the kitchen table at his home Although he was left with only one leg and a wooden peg leg his uncle carved for him Bates resolved to continue dancing It somehow grew in my mind that I wanted to be as good a dancer as any two legged dancer he recalled It hurt me that the boys pitied me I was pretty popular before and I still wanted to be popular I told them not to feel sorry for me ...


Melanye P. White-Dixon

Over a career that spanned nearly six decades, Beatty came to be acknowledged by dance critics as one of America's most brilliant dancers and choreographers. He began his dance studies at age eleven in the late 1930s under the tutelage of Katherine Dunham and was a principal dancer with her company for several years as well as a teacher of the Dunham technique. After becoming an independent dancer in 1945, he performed in filmmaker Maya Deren's A Study in Choreography for Camera (1945), in a revival of Show Boat (1946), in Syvilla Fort's Procession and Rite (1947), and in Helen Tamiris's Inside U.S.A. (1948).

In 1947 Beatty formed his own company, called Tropicana. For the company premiere he created Southern Landscape a dance about the plight of African Americans in the South after the Civil War The ...


USdancer, choreographer, and company director. He trained with Katherine Dunham and made his professional debut in her company in 1940, undertaking additional later studies with Martha Graham. In 1946 he left Dunham to perform in musicals, including a revival of Show Boat (1946), as well as in Maya Deren's film, A Study in Choreography for Camera (1945). In 1949 he formed his own company, Tropicana, for which he created Southern Landscape, a work portraying the plight of African Americans in the South after the Civil War. In 1955 he disbanded his company, and focused on giving solo concerts and choreographing for others. His dances frequently highlighted social injustice, particularly for black Americans. A list of his works includes The Road of the Phoebe Snow (1959), the full-length Come and Get the Beauty of It Hot ...


Rusty E. Frank

family of three brothers whose mixture of the cakewalk strut, tap dancing, thrilling acrobatics, and amazing cane work made them one of the most exciting acts on the entertainment circuit. Members included Ananais “Nyas” Berry (born 1915 in New Orleans, Louisiana, died 6 October 1951 in New York City), dancer known as the “king of the strut”; James Berry (born c.1917 in New Orleans, died 1964 in New York City), dancer, comedian, and singer; and Warren Berry (born 25 December 1922 in Denver, Colorado), dancer and acrobat. Their act, which remained virtually unchanged for more than twenty years, can be seen in the film Lady, Be Good! (1941).

The Berry Brothers began their career in the early 1920s, with young Ananias and James billed as “The Miniature Williams and Walker,” since they molded their act after the most famous African-American team of the day, Bert Williams ...


Rusty E. Frank

Berry Brothers, dancers, consisted of Ananias “Nyas” Berry (18 Aug. 1913–5 Oct. 1951) and James Berry (c. 1915–28 Jan. 1969), both born in New Orleans, Louisiana, and Warren Berry (25 Dec. 1922–10 Aug. 1996), born in Denver, Colorado, the sons of Ananias Berry and Redna Berry, whose occupations are unknown.

In 1919, Nyas and James first began performing together, touring the church circuit in Chicago as elocutionists reciting poems by Paul Laurence Dunbar After the family moved to Denver the two elder brothers branched out and began playing carnivals Their father a very religious man had forbidden them to dance but Nyas had memorized dances he had seen other performers do and had built upon them himself He persuaded his father to let him enter an amateur dance contest in which he floored the audience The theater manager offered Nyas $75 a week the elder Ananias insisted ...


Brenda Dixon Gottschild

Most of Bradley's professional career was spent in England and Europe, and little is recorded of his American work. This problem is shared by other African-American choreographers of his generation, such as Leonard Harper, Clarence Robinson, and Addison Carey. In addition, the date and place of his birth are uncertain, as is the date of his stage debut.

Bradley grew up in Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, and later, after his mother's death, moved to Harlem in New York City, where he lived in a boardinghouse for performers. His early influences included Dancing Dotson and Jack Wiggins, dancers on the black vaudeville circuit; precision dancers Rufus Greenlee and Thaddeus Drayton, who were fellow rooming-house boarders; and the inventive Eddie Rector In the mid 1920s after working as an elevator operator Bradley took a chorus job in a musical revue at Connie s Inn in upper Manhattan Subsequently ...


Freda Scott Giles

dancer, singer, entertainer, and actor, was born John William Sublett in Louisville, Kentucky. His parents’ names are not known. His early childhood was spent in Indianapolis, Indiana, where his family was part of a touring carnival; by the age of seven, John was performing on the stage, participating in amateur contests as a singer. Accounts differ as to when he returned to Louisville and when he met his vaudeville team partner, Ford Lee “Buck” Washington. Some sources list their ages as ten and six, respectively, while others list them as thirteen and nine. The team began working professionally by 1915 as “Buck and Bubbles,” an act combining music and comedy.

They would remain together for nearly forty years originally combining Washington s talents as a pianist with Sublett s as a singer when his voice changed Sublett turned to tap dancing as his primary talent As they developed their act ...


Jane Goldberg

Nicknamed “Bubber,” Bubbles is best known for his original portrayal of Sportin' Life in George Gershwin's Porgy and Bess (1935) and as one half of the famous singing-and-dancing comedy act of Buck and Bubbles. The act, which began when the ten-year-old Bubbles teamed with six-year-old Ford Lee (“Buck”) Washington, lasted almost fifty years. The two were featured in the Ziegfeld Follies of1931 and were the first black artists to appear at New York's Radio City Music Hall.

Known as the father of rhythm Bubbles influenced an entire generation of dancers during tap dancing s innovative period of the 1920s and 1930s He made tap a jazz form when he created new accents by the drop of his heels introducing gradations of tone and complex syncopations Tap dancers previously had tended to stay on their toes when Bubbles experimented with turns and heel drops he changed the ...