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Jane G. Landers

free barber and captain of the Battalion of Loyal Blacks of Havana, recruited and equipped at his own cost a black battalion to defend the Cuban city against Britain’s surprise attack in 1762. The men of his unit fought under a flag bearing the motto “Victory or Death.” During the American Revolution, Barba and other black troops again fought the British in New Orleans and Pensacola, in The Bahamas, and on Atlantic corsair expeditions.

In 1786 Barba married the wealthy María Isabel Aróstegui who brought a 6 000 peso dowry to the union and they made their home in the Guadalupe neighborhood outside the walled city They had two children and were able to give their daughter María Tranquilina a large dowry when she married Captain Manuel Salazar a member of Barba s battalion Barba s son José Silverio Guadalupe Barba was a carpenter and sublieutenant of the ...


Carlos Parra

Six officially recognized saints lived in colonial Peru during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries: Toribio de Mogrovejo (1538–1606), second archbishop of Lima and defender of the Indians; Francisco Solano (1549–1619), a Franciscan missionary, musician, and evangelizer of the South; Rosa de Lima (1586–1617), a tertiary of the Order of Preachers, the first native in the New World to be canonized; Juan Macías (1585–1645), a lay brother of the same order, servant of the poor; Ana de los Ángeles Monteagudo (1602–1686), a mystic nun of a cloistered convent in Arequipa; and Martín de Porres. In the context of this generation of saints, Martín is distinctive for being the first mulatto (of African and European descent) ever to be canonized by the Roman Catholic Church.

De Porres was born in Lima on December 9, 1579, the natural son of Juan ...


Ignacio Telesca

was born in Africa and brought to Paraguay after 1750. It was there that he was bought as a slave by a man named Marcos Salinas. Paraguay at that time was a province belonging to the Spanish colonial viceroyalty of Peru. The name of Josef Salinas is known to history because of the long process he initiated to purchase his liberty.

His owner, Marcos Salinas, was a member of the local elite, an owner of land and slaves, who was named as an administrator of the goods of the Jesuit college of Asunción after the expulsion of the Society of Jesus from the territories under the Spanish crown in 1767 He owned various estates but Josef lived in his master s own house in the capital Asunción where his owner taught him to read and write He also instructed his slave to learn the trade and work as ...