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North African Islamic theologian and jurist, was born in the city of al-Qayrawan to an Arab family with origins in the Hadramawt region of southern Arabia. His nisba al-Muradi further suggests a lineage among the Madhij Bedouin of Maʾrib in the Yemen. Al-Hadrami received his early education in al-Qayrawan, where he was able to study with a number of luminaries, including the influential jurist Abu ʿImran al-Fasi (d. 1039). He quickly drew the notice of his teachers for his formidable intellect and impressive command of the Arabic language. Al-Hadrami subsequently departed al-Qayrawan, possibly prompted by the Bedouin invasions of the mid-eleventh century, and took up residence in the Moroccan city of Aghmat, southeast of Marrakech. Here, he embarked on a career teaching the Islamic sciences, and he is known to have produced at least one student of note, the theologian Abu al-Hajjaj Yusuf bin Musa al-Kalbi al-Darir (d. 1126).

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Efraim Barak

Egyptian jurist, religious thinker, and second general guide (murshid ʿam) of the Muslim Brothers in Egypt, was born in December 1891 to a lower-class family in Arab al-Sawaliha, a village northwest of Cairo. After learning the Qurʾan in a local kuttab, he spent a year in one of al-Azhar’s religious elementary schools before transferring to a state school, from which he graduated in 1911. Hudaybi then enrolled in law school. Upon completing a five-year program, he began working at the law firm of Kamil Husayn and Hafiz Ramadan. In 1918, Hudaybi opened his own practice in Shibin al-Qanatir, a city near his village, before moving the office to Suhaj in Upper Egypt.

In 1925, Hudaybi was appointed a judge in Qina. Thereafter, he received postings in other provincial towns and was transferred to Cairo in 1933. By the late 1940s he had ...

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Justin Stearns

Moroccan judge and theologian, was born in 1631 near Sefrou in the Middle Atlas into the ait Yusi tribe, which had shortly before moved north from the south of Morocco. When still young, his mother died, and this event is said to have deeply affected al-Yusi and to have pushed him to seek solace in study. His first teacher was affiliated with a local Sufi lodge and taught him the Qurʾan and grammar. When still young, al-Yusi came across a hagiographic account of the famed Hanbali scholar Ibn al-Jawzi (d. 1201), which had a profound effect on him and prompted him to seek out other teachers.

Al-Yusi’s itinerant education took place for the most part in the south of Morocco (Sus). He studied in Marrakech with the jurist and theologian Abu Mahdi ʿIsa al-Suktani (d. 1652) before traveling south to Taroudant, Ilig, and Tamanart. In 1650 not ...