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Paul Stillwell

pioneer black naval officer, was born in Cotton Plant, Arkansas, a predominantly black community, one of twelve children of Tecora and Alexander Arbor. He had two sisters and nine brothers, and his ancestors had received land in the area when slavery ended. Outgoing, humorous, and loquacious by nature, Arbor possessed a typically rural southern sense of place. During an oral history interview in the mid‐1980s, he described Cotton Plant as, “A little place that only me and the Good Lord knows [with a population of] 1,661 up until the day I left, and there's never been that many since.” Like his siblings, Arbor received a private school education. During his years in Arkansas he attended Arkadelphia–Cotton Plant Academy. Around 1930 the family left the farm area and moved to Chicago as part of a northerly migration of blacks seeking employment opportunities Arbor s father worked as a carpenter ...

Article

Jane G. Landers

free barber and captain of the Battalion of Loyal Blacks of Havana, recruited and equipped at his own cost a black battalion to defend the Cuban city against Britain’s surprise attack in 1762. The men of his unit fought under a flag bearing the motto “Victory or Death.” During the American Revolution, Barba and other black troops again fought the British in New Orleans and Pensacola, in The Bahamas, and on Atlantic corsair expeditions.

In 1786 Barba married the wealthy María Isabel Aróstegui who brought a 6 000 peso dowry to the union and they made their home in the Guadalupe neighborhood outside the walled city They had two children and were able to give their daughter María Tranquilina a large dowry when she married Captain Manuel Salazar a member of Barba s battalion Barba s son José Silverio Guadalupe Barba was a carpenter and sublieutenant of the ...

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Glenn Allen Knoblock

Civil War soldier and Medal of Honor recipient, was born in Burrell Township, Pennsylvania. Little is known about Bronson's life before the war except that he was a barber. Perhaps enthusiastic about getting a chance to fight for the Union cause, he journeyed from Pennsylvania to Delaware, Ohio, to enlist in the 127th Ohio Regiment on 4 July 1863. When he joined, James Bronson was in the vanguard of black service in the army less than two months prior the War Department had created the Bureau of Colored Troops This military agency was created to aid in the establishment of black regiments and the enlistment of both black troops and the white officers who would command them In some cases these regiments were raised entirely under the bureau s guidance However as was the case with Bronson s 127th Ohio Regiment some were raised by individual states and ...

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Robert C. Schwaller

and son of a prominent noble from Valencia, Spain, who later lived in Mexico. Born to Gaspar Rubio de Cardona a caballero (knight) of Valencia and Catalina Martín, a morena (black woman), most of his contemporaries considered Juan Bautista to be a mulatto. Cardona was raised in Valencia in the home of his father before pursuing an active military career and later immigrating to Mexico.

Not much is known about his youth other than it was spent in Valencia with his parents. As an illegitimate—albeit recognized—son of a nobleman, Cardona sought to improve his social position through military service. During the 1560s he served in Spanish military campaigns in the Mediterranean and Iberian Peninsula. In 1564 he served under General don García de Toledo y Osorio on an expedition to recapture the Peñón de Veléz on the Barbary Coast in modern Morocco This strategic promontory would serve as a ...

Article

Theresa A. Hammond

consumer markets specialist and business school professor, was born in Chesterfield County, Virginia, to Thomas D. Harris Jr. and Georgia Laws Carter. Thomas Harris was a messenger for the Atlantic Coast Line Railroad and also worked as an embalmer, and Georgia Carter Harris was a homemaker. Thomas stressed the importance of education for his three children, tutoring them in math, anatomy, and English after dinner. Harris attended Kingsland Elementary School (one of the black primary and secondary schools funded by Sears, Roebuck philanthropist Julius Rosenwald to improve education for black southerners) in Chesterfield County, Virginia, and D. Webster Davis High School, the Virginia State College laboratory school, in Petersburg, Virginia. While in high school, Harris earned a certificate in barber practice and science. He cut soldiers' hair on the nearby Fort Lee army base to help pay for his education at Virginia State College.

Harris s education ...

Article

Paul Stillwell

pioneer black naval officer, was born in Murphreesboro, Tennessee, one of two children of Frank E. Sr. and Rosa Sublett, who were divorced in 1931. When Sublett was about five years old, the family moved to Highland Park, Illinois, and a year later to Glencoe, Illinois, another Chicago suburb. Sublett spent most of the rest of his life in Glencoe. His education in the first eight grades was in Glencoe, and he then went to high school in nearby Winnetka. He was among the very few black students in the high school, from which he graduated in 1938, but he later recalled that he encountered no prejudice there (Stillwell, 149). As a teenager he got his first exposure to service life when he attended Citizens Military Training Camp at Fort Riley, Kansas, for two summers. He spent the 1938–1939 school year at the University of ...