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Marion Arnold

South African sculptor and multimedia artist, was born in Johannesburg, South Africa. Her father’s family emigrated from Germany (her paternal grandfather was Jewish). She studied at the University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, graduating with a bachelor of fine arts degree and the Martienssen Student Prize in 1982 and completing her masters degree in 1988. She taught English and art at schools in Namibia and Cape Town before joining the Michaelis School of Fine Art, University of Cape Town, as a part-time lecturer in 1996. She holds a professorship in sculpture and is resident in Cape Town. An intensely private person, Alexander rarely gives interviews or explains her work verbally.

In 1986 Alexander gained attention with a solo exhibition in Johannesburg. It included Butcher Boys (1985–1986 a disquieting depiction of three white life size naturalistic figures seated on a bench These self absorbed beings possessing animal and ...

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María Elba Torres

was born in the neighborhood of Bélgica in Ponce, Puerto Rico, on 12 January 1928. His parents were José Rodríguez Torres, a lathe operator, and doña Esmeralda Alicea, a homemaker. He studied drawing and painting with don Miguel Pou, a painter who was also from Ponce. Alicea himself tells us that he paid for Master Pou’s classes with picture frames he built himself. In 1936, together with his neighbor William Haddock, who also lived in Bélgica, he made comic strips for the school in Ponce. The neighborhood he grew up in—as well as his mother and the Afroboricua music, dance, and songs present—all instilled in him an Afro-descendant consciousness.

Alicea joined the US Army in 1943 at the age of 14 Among his artistic mentors were the Spanish sculptor Francisco Vázquez Díaz known as Compostela and the graphic artist Lorenzo Homar He worked creating window displays a ...

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Baptiste Bonnefoy

was born José Toribio Apelo on 7 April 1797 in Santiago, Chile, the illegitimate son of Pascuala Apelo Gormas, the daughter-in-law of the pardo captain Domingo Eustaquio Cruzate (1709–1788). Apelo himself was considered a pardo, a designation commonly applied in eighteenth-century Chile to free men and women of color. At an early age he went to work for the master carpenter Ambrosio Santelices, the most famous sculptor in the Chilean capital at the time, whose shop was located directly across from the current site of the National Library. In this workshop Apelo met and befriended the master’s son, the sculptor Pedro Santelices. At about this time, he also joined the city’s black militia, a group that was charged with the night patrol of the city’s shops and warehouses. On 15 April 1805 Apelo married the master carpenter s daughter María del Carmen the couple would have ...

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Roberto Conduru

was born on 15 November 1940, the son of Guilhermina Alves and Vital Araújo. His full name is Emanoel Alves de Araújo; he was born into a traditional family of goldsmiths in Santo Amaro da Purificação, in Bahia, Brazil. There, he learned carpentry with master Eufrásio Vargas, worked with linotype and typesetting in the official press, and held his first exhibition in 1959.

In the 1960s, he moved to Salvador, where he majored in printmaking at the Federal University of Bahia, in 1965. Since then, he has held solo exhibitions and participated in group exhibitions held in Brazil and abroad.

His artistic work has explored the transformation of traditional artistic media from chromatic and three dimensional experiments with printmaking his work unfolded in sculptures some of them displayed in public spaces His work has also promoted the articulation of African descended cultures with constructivist principles and forms ...

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Pauline de Souza

was born in Trinidad, Cuba, in 1970. In 1994 he graduated from the Superior Institute of Art in Havana. In 1992, while still studying, he joined Los Carpinteros (The Carpenters), a Havana art collective. In 1994 the group decided that they would only sign their work as a collective. For them, art, whether physical or conceptual, was about collaboration. They intended to challenge cultural assumptions about cityscapes and public spaces by creating architecture that would get people to really look at their surroundings and the buildings.

Arrechea’s career as an artist took off when he received a grant from the Spanish Ministry of Culture, allowing him to spend five months in Spain. International recognition of Los Carpinteros occurred in 1998, when they showed at the International Contemporary Art Fair (ARCO), held in Madrid, Spain. They gained further recognition with their installation Transportable City (Ciudad transportable ...

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Nicholas J. Bridger

Yoruba wood sculptor, was born in 1910 in Osi-Ilorin, now in Kwara State, Nigeria. He was the son of Areogun of Osi-Ilorin (c. 1880–1954), a significant master woodcarver of the premodern tradition of the northeast area of Yorubaland. He acquired the name George when baptized Catholic as a child, although his father remained a practitioner of the local Yoruba religion. His name is referred to in recent sources as George Bamidele Arowoogun, the patronymic added as a surname. His close collaborator and patron for four decades, Father Kevin Carroll (1920–1993), always referred to him simply as “Bandele.”

Growing up in a successful carver s household Bandele became apprenticed in his teens to one of his father s former assistants Oshamuko also from Osi Ilorin one of a group of villages called collectively Opin which was within the Ekiti region Both his familial ancestry and his artistic lineage ...

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Ghirmai Negash

avant-garde Eritrean novelist, playwright, and painter-cum-sculptor, was educated in Eritrea, Ethiopia, and at the American University of Beirut, Lebanon, from which he graduated in 1963 with a degree in public administration and political science. Beyene Haile lived in Addis Ababa until Eritrean independence. In 1992, he moved to Asmara, where he worked as a management consultant and trainer while still pursuing his artistic career.

Beyene Haile is the author of three Tigrinya-language novels and a play. His 1965 debut novel, Abiduʾdo Teblewo? Madness differs from conventional Tigrinya writing in at least three fundamental ways First it takes an intellectual and artist as its main character and tells his story with compelling force and narrative skill Wounded by life the central character of the novel a bohemian artist called Mezgebe uses his art to heal his wounds and those of others in a manner that borders on insanity Another ...

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Rebecca Martin Nagy

artist and educator, was born in Addis Ababa to an Ethiopian mother and an Armenian father who was a colonel in the Imperial Body Guard of Haile Selassie. Boghossian received early art training at Tafari Makonnen Secondary School and in private lessons with Stanislas Chojnacki, a historian of Ethiopian art and water-colorist, then librarian at the University College of Addis Ababa (later Haile Selassie I University and now Addis Ababa University), and with Jacques Godbout, a Canadian writer, filmmaker, and painter who taught French at the University College.

In 1955 Boghossian won second prize at an art exhibition held as part of Haile Selassie s Jubilee Anniversary Celebration and was awarded an imperial scholarship to study in London After attending classes at St Martin s School the Central School and the Slade School of Fine Art in London the young artist decided to transfer his studies to Paris where ...

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Pauline de Souza

a self-taught artist whose art was very much rooted in his religious visions, was born in rural Clarendon, Jamaica. He combined his Pentecostal evangelical spirituality with African drumming rituals; symbolic images from Kumina, a Jamaican religious ceremony in which a person becomes possessed by spirits through dance and music; Pocomania, a folk religion in which possession takes place by ancestors; and religious revivalism. His apocalyptic visions developed when he moved to Kingston at the age of 20 with his wife, Jenny. Together, they had ten children: Clinton, Joseph, Errol, Winston, Dorothy, Myrtle, Sandra, Venice, Ruth, and Rebecca.

During the 1940s in Kingston Brown met the Rastafarian preacher Joseph Hibbert who encouraged him to interpret his visions Eventually Brown converted to Rastafarianism after experiencing a series of visions of Haile Selassie emperor of Ethiopia who symbolized black freedom from European colonialism Brown was to spend the next fifteen years in Kingston ...

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Born in rural Jamaica, Everald Brown moved to West Kingston in 1947 and became deeply interested in the religion of the Rastafarians. Having established a small unofficial church in 1960, he began making artworks for use in church ritual. These works are noted for their intuitive style and use of imagery from Rastafarian, Ethiopian Orthodox, Judaic, and Christian revivalist religious traditions. Brown claims that these images come to him through dreams and visions. Among his most acclaimed paintings is Ethiopian Apple (1970), which is in the collection of the National Gallery of Jamaica.

An accomplished sculptor as well as an intuitive painter, Brown has also gained fame for his carved musical instruments. From the early 1970s he lived in rural Jamaica, where he devoted himself to art that promoted spiritual and environmental concerns.

See also Art in Latin America and the Caribbean.

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Misere Osorio Ramírez

was born José Ramón Osorio Bulerín in Canóvana, Puerto Rico. He was the son of Gabriel Osorio and Juana Bulerín Guzmán, but his father was absent from his childhood. He grew up in a working-class neighborhood where everyone worked at the local sugar refinery. The fourth of ten siblings, Ramón was raised by his mother and his grandmother, Martina Guzmán (informally known as “la negra,” or “the black woman”), who cultivated in him an independent and honest character. As of 2015, eight of Bulerín’s ten siblings were still alive, as was his mother. Bulerín has two daughters, the first, Misere Osorio Ramírez, was born in 1985, and the second, Pamela Osorio Ramírez, was born in 1988.

During his childhood Bulerín enjoyed sketching and as a result his teachers asked him to help them with drawings for school He began by drawing everything that he saw in magazines ...

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Joyce Youmans

a Nigerian sculptor, was born in Buguma, Nigeria, the principal settlement of the Kalabari people in the eastern Niger Delta region. She moved to England as a teenager, where she was raised by her brother-in-law, the anthropologist Robin Horton. From 1979 to 1980 she attended the California College of Arts and Crafts in Oakland. She then returned to England and enrolled at the Central School of Art and Design in London where she earned a bachelor’s degree (with honors) in 1983. While an undergraduate, she received the Amy Sadur Friedlander Prize (1981) and the Saatchi & Saatchi Award (1982). In 1983 Camp was awarded the Princess of Wales Memorial Scholarship and the coveted Henry Moore Bursary at the Royal College of Art in London. She graduated from the Royal College in 1986 with a master’s degree in sculpture.

Camp received additional education in Nigeria where ...

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Leah Gordon

was born in Port-au-Prince, Haiti, on 20 March 1966, to Depas Hérard and Souvenir Laurent, both of whom were originally from the southern city of Jérémie. His father was a cobbler, and his mother a market trader. One of eight children, Céleur was brought up on Rue du Magasin de l’État, where he continued to live with his own family as an adult. He and his first wife, Immacula Saintus, had three daughters, Blondine, Mariotte Orlie, and Dachemine Love, before Immacula died in 2008. His fourth daughter, Altamira, was born to Claudette Louis, his new partner, in 2013. Céleur attended school at the École des Casernes Dessalines in Port-au-Prince. He started to learn to sculpt in 1977 by sanding and polishing woodcarvings. In 1982 he began to work on larger pieces, learning the trade from his older brother, Christophe Hérard, who died in 1999.

After his ...

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Matthew Francis Rarey

was likely born into slavery in the captaincy of Bahia, in the Portuguese colony of Brazil. Little is known of his background or family life. By the second half of the eighteenth-century Chagas had emerged as one of the most important sculptors of the Bahian baroque style and one of two influential baroque religious sculptors of African descent, along with Antônio Francisco Lisboa, “O Aleijadinho” (1730 or 1738–1814), a prolific sculptor active in the captaincy of Minas Gerais. In twentieth-century scholarship, Chagas is frequently known by the nickname “O Cabra” (The Goat), a Portuguese colonial term for a person born to one black and one mulata/o parent. However, this appellation for Chagas does not predate its use by art historian Manuel Querino (1911), casting doubt on its historicity in Chagas’s own life.

By about 1750 Chagas had gained his freedom and found work as ...

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Claudia Hucke

was born on 10 December 1891 in Savanna-la-Mar, Westmoreland, Jamaica. At the age of 14, Dunkley traveled to Panama, where many Jamaicans worked on the construction of the Panama Canal, to live with his father. His father, however, died shortly before Dunkley landed, and so he became a sailor, journeying to places like England, Scotland, and North and South America, before finally settling in Chiriqui, Panama. There he worked as a barber and started painting, learning about art from the photographer Clarence Rock.

After his return to Jamaica in 1926 Dunkley married Cassie Fraser and opened a barber shop in Kingston where he also showed his paintings He began exhibiting locally and internationally in the late 1930s after H D Molesworth secretary of the Institute of Jamaica encountered his work When invited to join formal art classes held by the sculptor Edna Manley at the Institute of Jamaica Dunkley ...

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Jennifer Anne Hart

Ghanaian painter and sculptor, was born in Anyako in the Volta region of what was then the Gold Coast and is now Ghana. He was the son of a weaver, and is a member of the Ewe ethnic group.

Anatsui began professional art training at the University of Science and Technology in Kumasi, Ghana (1965–1969). During this four-year training period, which emphasized Western art techniques, Anatsui specialized in sculpture with particular focus on life and figure studies. During the early years of his career and training, however, Anatsui was influenced by the work of Oku Ampofo, Vincent Akwete Kofi, and Kofi Antubam, who began to reject the foreign influences in their artistic training and pay increasing attention to indigenous art forms. This artistic movement was encapsulated in the Ghanaian concept of sankofa. Responding to colonial efforts to denigrate African culture, sankofa encouraged the careful selection and inclusion of ...

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Nigerian artist and sculptor, was born a twin on 14 July 1921 in Onitsha, Anambra State, Nigeria. He was born into the noble family of Umueze-Aroli in Onitsha, to Omenka Odigwe Emeka Enwonu, a technician and a sculptor who worked for the Royal Nigeria Company. His mother was Ilom, a successful cloth trader.

Enwonwu was educated at primary schools in Onitsha, Umuahia, and Port-Harcourt from 1926 to 1931, and received a secondary education at St. Patrick’s School, Ibusa, and Government College Ibadan. At Ibadan in 1934, he met Kenneth Murray, the education officer responsible for art education in the colonial civil service. He then left with Murray for Government College, Umuahia, where he studied for five years. Enwonwu’s work was introduced to the international art world in 1937 when Murray exhibited the work of his students at the Zwemmer Gallery in London As a result of that ...

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Leanne Haynes

was born on 6 December 1980 in Castries, St. Lucia, and is one of six children born to his St. Lucian parents. His father, the renowned sculptor Vincent Joseph Eudovic (1949– ), established his own art studio in St. Lucia in 1975. His mother, Joyceline Eudovic (1949–), is co-owner and store manager at Eudovic’s Art Studio. Jallim Eudovic attended the Methodist Primary School in the island’s capital from 1989 to 1994. His secondary education was attained from St. Mary’s College, where he completed his studies in 1999. Eudovic started sculpting from the early age of 5, and he was eager to pursue this passion as a career. For this reason, he did not complete any further education and instead worked steadily toward securing a portfolio of international acclaim.

Eudovic has exhibited his sculptures all over the world including in Africa China England Martinique Canada ...

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Leah Gordon

was born in Port-au-Prince, Haiti, on 23 August 1959 to Theleny Eugène, a woman from Les Cayes in southern Haiti. Eugène was the youngest of six children. His father, said to be a Port-au-Prince slipper maker, but whose identity Eugène never knew, died when Eugène was a few months old. He became an orphan in 1973 at the age of 14 He was baptized a Catholic but after his mother s death he attended an Episcopalian church with his aunt Anne Marie Eugène a strict Protestant prone to violence and alcoholism with whom he lived after his mother s death Along with his godparents his aunt supported him and he attended the Lycée Toussaint Louverture in Port au Prince until he was 16 years old Once he finished school Eugène moved in with his half sister Berta Pierre Louis just behind Grand Rue downtown Port au Prince s main ...

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Nicholas J. Bridger

Yoruba wood sculptor, was born in 1924 in Ila-Orangun, now in Osun State, Nigeria. He was the fifth-generation son of a noted traditional wood carver, Akobi Ogun Fakeye. The elder Fakeye had also worked as a babalawo, a traditional Ifa diviner-priest. He acquired the name Lamidi, an abbreviated form of Abdul Hameed, when he converted to Islam as a teenager. Tellingly, his given name, Olonade, translates as “the carver has arrived.” His specific birth year is given by Father Kevin Carroll as “about 1925,” although his immediate family preferred the year 1924.

By 1945 both his parents had died leaving him without direct parental support although they had secured his early education in the local colonial schools he later completed high school on his own Not having had a carving apprenticeship as a youth Lamidi was later forced to teach himself the rudiments of wood sculpture ...