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Cristina Ferreira Pinto-Bailey

was born on 14 April 1857 in São Luís, capital of the northern Brazilian province of Maranhão. Born to David Gonçalves de Azevedo, Portugal’s vice consul in Brazil, and Emília Amália Pinto de Magalhães (also Portuguese), Aluísio Tancredo Gonçalves was the younger brother of the famous playwright Artur Azevedo (1855–1908). Azevedo’s parents were not legally married, as his mother had been married beforehand to a Portuguese businessman. It was an arranged marriage that ended when Magalhães left her violent husband, causing social scandal.

Growing up in São Luís, Azevedo developed an early interest in painting and drawing. He moved to Rio de Janeiro in 1876 to study at the Academia Imperial de Belas Artes National Academy of Fine Arts In the capital of the Brazilian Empire he began working as an illustrator and caricaturist for several newspapers As many critics have pointed out Azevedo s craft as ...

Article

Christopher Campbell

London‐born poet, printer, visionary, and ‘prophet against empire’. Over the course of his lifetime Blake confronted the horrors of slavery through his literary and pictorial art. He was able both to counter pro‐slavery propaganda and to complicate typical abolitionist verse and sentiment with a profound and unique exploration of the effects of enslavement and the varied processes of empire.

Blake's poem ‘The Little Black Boy’ from Songs of Innocence (1789 examines the mind forg d manacles of racial constructions in the minds of individuals both in the poem itself in the form of the black child and his white counterpart and also in the minds of those involved in the political dispute over abolition Seeming to explain a desire for racial acceptance and spiritual purity through assimilation into white British society and seeming also to be endorsing conventional assumptions of white racial superiority the poem ...

Article

Frank Martin

artist, writer, illustrator and educator, was born Elton Clay Fax, the son of Mark Oakland and Willie Estele Fax in Baltimore, Maryland. Fax initially matriculated at the historically black institution Claflin University, in Orangeburg, South Carolina, but completed his studies and received a BFA at Syracuse University in Syracuse, New York, in 1931. On 12 March 1929, Fax married the former Grace Elizabeth Turner, and their union produced three children.

In 1934 Fax painted a well-received mural, commissioned by the Public Works of Art Projects (PWAP) at Baltimore's Dunbar High School, depicting the incorporation of southern, black agrarians into the urban, industrial north. Fax's representation of the Great Migration and a pluralistic American workforce was an ideal example of the American Social-Realist art that was supported by Franklin Delano Roosevelt's New Deal projects Social Realism was a popular style in the 1930s ...

Article

J. Vern Cromartie

visual artist, musician, author, and political activist, was born Joan Angela Lewis in Oakland, California, to John Henry Lewis and Florence (Reid) Lewis. She is also known as J. Tarika Lewis, Tarika Lewis, Joan Lewis, and Matilaba. At the time of her birth, her father was a salesman for G&W Refrigeration. He was the first black man to become the light heavyweight champion of the world, a title he held from 1935 to 1939. After retiring as a prize fighter, John Henry Lewis and his father Edward Lewis operated a boxing gym in Oakland.

While attending Oakland Technical High School Lewis was active in the journalism music and athletic programs She wrote for the school newspaper and played violin in the school orchestra Lewis was also a member of the swim team and a sprinter on the track team From the 10th to ...

Article

Timothy L. Jackson

editorial cartoonist and illustrator, was born Ahmed Samuel Milai in Washington, D.C.

During the 1930s Milai served as illustrator of Joel Augustus Rogers's black history comic titled Your History. Rogers's comic brouge4820ht readers of the black press information about the remarkable achievements of individuals throughout the African diaspora, which was conspicuously absent from elementary school history books across America. The fully illustrated Your History comic was presented in a style similar to that of the popular Ripley's Believe it or Not! feature. Although Milai worked in association with the Pittsburgh Courier, Your History also appeared in a number of other black press publications nationally.

On 31 July 1937 the Pittsburgh Courier debuted Milai's comic domestic family strip titled Bucky This weekly comic strip centered on an adolescent boy and his interaction with his parents schoolmates and the obligatory assortment of tough guys and bullies Over the ...

Article

Thomas H. Wirth

Nugent, Richard Bruce (02 July 1906–27 May 1987), artist and writer was born in Washington D C the son of Richard Henry Nugent Jr a Pullman porter and Capitol elevator operator and Pauline Minerva Bruce Nugent Although his mother s family was prominent among Washington s African American elite the Nugents were of modest means A precocious child Nugent read widely in his father s larger than average library He was only thirteen years old and already attending Washington s renowned Dunbar High School when his father died of galloping consumption Shortly thereafter his mother moved to New York City where she secured employment as a waitress and maid Nugent and his brother Gary Lambert Pete Nugent remained with relatives in Washington for a few months then joined their mother in New York Bruce Nugent secured employment as a delivery boy and later as a bellhop His ...

Article

The son of Richard Henry and Pauline Minerva Nugent, Richard Bruce Nugent left Washington, D.C. with his recently widowed mother at the age of thirteen and moved to New York City, where he attended Dunbar High School. To support himself Nugent worked as an errand boy, bellhop, designer, and elevator operator, as well as a “secretary and a confidance man for a modiste.”

Openly gay at the age of nineteen, Nugent went by the name Richard Bruce to protect his mother from public embarrassment about his homosexuality. Although his gay identity cost him some friendships, Nugent associated with gay and bisexual contemporaries Langston Hughes, Carl Van Vechten, E. M. Forster, and Alain Locke. His dramatic “ultimate bohemian” style was the basis for Wallace Thurmanapos;s character Paul Arbian in Infants of the Spring (1932 the roman a clef that satirized figures of ...

Article

Nathan L. Grant

also known as Bruce Nugent and Richard Bruce. “Shadows,” Richard Bruce Nugent's first published poem, on the subject of race, appeared in Opportunity and was reprinted in 1927 in Countee Cullen's Caroling Dusk. “”Sahdji,” published in Alain Locke's The New Negro (1925), is a pseudo-African story characterized by the use of ellipses and contains the twin themes of homosexuality and biblical imagery that would often determine his later work. In collaboration with Locke this later became Sahdji—An African Ballet and appeared in Locke's anthology Plays of Negro Life (1927). Scored by William Grant Still, it was performed at the Eastman School of Music in 1932.

In 1926, with Wallace Thurman, Langston Hughes, Zora NealeHurston, and Aaron Douglas, Nugent's founded the controversial magazine Fire!! Nugent's “Smoke, Lilies and Jade,” apparently the first tale of ...

Article

Cynthia Haveson Veloric

artist and educator, was born Raymond Jennings Saunders and raised in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. He attended Schenley High School and the Carnegie Institute of Technology, where talented high school students could pursue the arts six days a week and exhibit their work in a prestigious venue. Saunders later said,

From a young age I was going to school six days a week and loving it. You were welcomed to do all kinds of things. I had no conception that those opportunities weren't available to everybody. When I got to the outside world, I found a lot of pain. But my teachers told me, ‘If you ever think about stopping making art, come talk to us.’ So that support followed me.

(Chase,)

In 1953 Saunders received a National Scholastic Scholarship His academic achievements and the strong support of his teachers gave him the lifelong desire to teach and inspire young ...