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Article

Elio Leturia

was born Susana Esther Baca de la Colina in Lima, Peru, on 24 May 1944. Her parents were Ernesto Baca Ramírez, a driver for the aristocratic Nicolini family, and Carmen Eugenia de la Colina Gonzáles, a cook working in the homes of wealthy families. Her childhood was spent in the coastal district of Chorrillos, south of Lima, along with Raúl Ernesto and Maruja, her older siblings. Music entered her life at an early age, as her father played the guitar and her mother was a gifted dancer. Baca attended the 444 Public School in Chorrillos, and then the Juana Alarco de Dammert Public School. Because of incidents of racial harassment, her mother moved Baca to the Divino Maestro School, where she completed high school. She later attended the National University of Education Enrique Guzmán y Valle in La Cantuta, Lima, graduating as an elementary school teacher in 1968 ...

Article

Melvin L. Butler

gospel composer and pastor, was born into a family of sharecroppers in Somerville, Tennessee. Although Brewster stemmed from a humble background, he managed to study a wide variety of subjects, including theology, law, and Hebrew. After graduating from Roger Williams College in 1922 he moved to Memphis, Tennessee. By 1930 Brewster had begun a lifelong tenure as pastor of the East Trigg Baptist Church. A major aspect of Brewster's early ministry centered on the founding of theology schools, and these centers of learning helped to establish his voice as one of moral authority and spiritual guidance in religious circles.

By the time Brewster began seriously publishing his songs in the 1940s he had gained over a decade of experience in his pastoral role This experience provided a wellspring of material for songs that often relayed Old Testament stories and were enjoyed by African American congregations across the United States ...

Article

Joy Elizondo

Domingos Caldas Barbosa was born in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, to a white father, Antonio de Caldas Barbosa, and a black mother, whose identity remains unknown. From an early age Caldas received a Jesuit education. He showed a predilection for poetry and musical composition.

While still a young man Caldas was drafted into the military and sent to serve in the Portuguese colony of Sacramento on the Rio de la Plata. Subsequently, Caldas obtained his discharge, returned home to Brazil, and then boarded a ship bound for Portugal. He arrived in Lisbon in 1763 and shortly thereafter enrolled at the University of Coimbra. It is unclear at what point Caldas's university studies were discontinued, but author Jane M. Malinoff asserts that the young poet took leave shortly after learning of his father s death Unable to independently support the cost of his education Caldas recalled ...

Article

Araceli Reynoso

was born on 2 December 1919 in Cacahuatepec, Oaxaca. His parents were Francisco José María Carrillo and Candelaria Morales, a mulata originally from Juchitán, a small town located within what is today the municipality of Azoyú in the state of Guerrero. He had three more siblings. His mother died when he was still a child, after which his father married Teodora Alarcón. Álvaro took his stepmother’s last name in recognition of the fact that she had raised him and his siblings.

Álvaro liked to say that he was oaxaqueño by birth and raised by the Costa Chica of Guerrero a region that has historically identified itself as the major African presence in Mexico Costa Chica or Small Coast covers the southern Pacific coast of Mexico beginning in Acapulco Guerrero and ending in Puerto Escondido Oaxaca Africans arrived in this area of Mexico in the middle of the sixteenth century ...

Article

Mariana Isabel Lorenzetti

was born in the San Telmo neighborhood of Buenos Aires in 1866. Marcos de Estrada (1979) explains that Cozón’s mother first encouraged his interest in music and poetry. As a child he learned to play the guitar to accompany the verses he composed. According to Montero and Cirio (2012), Cozón began to dabble in the art of payada (an artistic expression characterized by improvised verses sung over a guitar accompaniment) when he was hired by circus and theater owners in the 1890s. Together with other minstrels, he toured several Argentine provinces, including Buenos Aires, Catamarca, Corrientes, Jujuy, Salta, Santa Fe, and Tucumán. He also toured the Republics of Paraguay and Uruguay as a soloist and with other payadores However despite his travels all over the country most of Cazón s performances took place in the neighborhoods of Buenos Aires itself and in various ...

Article

Devora Fogelman

was born Alverta Elise La Pallo in New York City to Bernando La Pallo, a chef and later an author, and Ida Roberta (Small) La Pallo, who worked at Saks Fifth Avenue as a marker of prices, as well as at a small company that made diaper bags. Lee had one younger sister, Nandra.

Chamberlin attended Our Lady of Lourdes elementary school in Harlem and Cathedral High School in midtown Manhattan The year of her graduation is unknown At the age of seventeen she won a play writing contest through the New York Chapter of the American Cancer Society The year is unknown when she began her studies at Washington Square College of New York University where she was a member of the Sigma Gamma Rho sorority and participated in an exchange program at the Sorbonne in Paris France The year of her graduation is unknown After completing college with ...

Article

Harmony A. Teitsworth

symphonic conductor, composer, and poet, was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, to James Henry DePreist and Ethel Anderson. Ethel's sister, James's aunt, was the distinguished singer Marian Anderson, a contralto who became the first African American to appear with the New York Metropolitan Opera. In Philadelphia, DePreist attended Central High School, the second-oldest high school in the country. One of the best college preparatory schools in the country, it is also a public magnet school renowned for its strong music department. During high school DePreist played percussion and timpani in the all-Philadelphia high school band and orchestra. The orchestra's director, Louis Werson, became a significant musical influence on DePreist and used his musical background to help his student start the Jimmy DePreist Quintet, a jazz band.

In 1958 DePreist received a bachelor s degree as a pre law student at the Wharton School of ...

Article

Roanne Edwards

Shirley Graham Du Bois was born in Indianapolis, Indiana, the oldest of David A. Graham and Etta (Bell) Graham's five children. Growing up, she moved with her family to various locations throughout the United States. As a teenager in Colorado Springs, Colorado, she first met W. E. B. Du Bois when he came to lecture at the local African Methodist Episcopal Church (AME). Soon after high school, she married a local man, Shadrack T. McCanns. The marriage soon ended, leaving her with two small children to support. “In quick succession I knew the glory of motherhood and the pain of deep sorrow,” she wrote later. “For the years immediately following, everything I did … was motivated by my passionate desire to make a good life for my sons.”

The nomadic quality of Graham s early life carried over into her educational experiences and into her later years ...

Article

Elizabeth Brown-Guillory

When Shirley Graham wrote in a 1933Crisis essay, “Black man’s music has become America’s music. It will not die,” she summed up one of her life’s ambitions: to bring to the foreground the many accomplishments of African Americans in every field. One of Graham’s concerns was that African Americans would eventually abandon their spirituals, with their unique rhythms and haunting melodies. In an effort to preserve black music, she became the first African American woman to write and produce an all-black opera, Tom-Toms: An Epic of Music and the Negro (1932). This was just one successful effort in a lifetime devoted to the preservation of black history and culture.

Shirley Lola Graham was born on a farm near Evansville, Indiana, to David Andrew Graham and Etta Bell Graham Graham and her four brothers were encouraged by their father a Methodist missionary to discover black culture ...

Article

Jennifer Jensen Wallach

author, composer, and activist. When Shirley Graham Du Bois was thirteen years old she met the prominent scholar and activist W. E. B. Du Bois. The meeting had a profound impact on her political and personal development, for she eventually married Du Bois in 1951. She became well known as W. E. B. Du Bois's second wife, causing some to overlook her tremendous personal accomplishments.

Shirley Graham was born near Evansville, Indiana, to David Graham and Etta Graham. Her father was an African Methodist Episcopal minister, a career that caused him to move his family to various locations in the United States, including Chicago, Detroit, New Orleans, and Nashville. At his churches Shirley first discovered a love for music, learning to play the organ and piano. She completed high school in Spokane, Washington, and then moved to Seattle, where she married Shadrack T. McCants ...

Article

Vernitta Brothers Tucker

author, composer, playwright, and activist, was born Shirley Lola Graham in Evansville, Indiana, the daughter of David A. Graham, a minister in the African Methodist Episcopal Church, and Etta Bell Graham, a homemaker. Graham's father had read many novels to his daughter, including Uncle Tom's Cabin, Les Miserables, Ben Hur, and Quo Vadis?, influencing her to become a voracious reader. His storytelling and commitment to intellectual pursuits strongly influenced Graham's literary development.

Young Graham's early education began in New Orleans, where her exposure to classic literature put her at an advantage over many of her classmates. When she was eight or nine years old, her family moved to Nashville, Tennessee, where she earned her first income writing for the local newspaper. In 1912 she attended Tenth Street High School in Clarksville Tennessee where she distinguished herself as the class poet and ...

Article

Adebe DeRango-Adem

was born in Rochester, New York, to Cornelius Eady, Sr., a schoolteacher, and Alveta Hayes, an activist.

As a teenager Eady spent a great deal of time at Rochester’s Rundel Public Library, where he was first introduced to the works of poets Allen Ginsberg and Pablo Neruda. The library also afforded him a place to listen to records, which would foster part of the musical cadences of his writings to come. After attending Rochester Educational Alternative for his junior and senior years, Eady remained in Rochester to attend Empire State University, where he pursued English with a concentration in creative writing during the years 1977 to 1979. Although he never formally graduated from the program, it was during this time that he was introduced to the works of Yusef Komunyakaa a poet whose own acclaim in African American arts and letters had at once opened the door for ...

Article

Nagueyalti Warren

and multitalented recipient of the National Academy of Arts and Letters Award for contributions to American literature. Shirley Lola Graham, the only daughter of Etta Bell Graham and Reverend David A. Graham, was born on 11 November 1896 in Indianapolis, Indiana, the oldest of five children. Free-spirited, talented, and ambitious, Graham resisted the shackles of race and gender. She divorced her first husband, worked to support two sons, and established a career for herself at a time when women had only recently gained the right to vote.

In 1926, Graham studied music and French at the Sorbonnne. Although her tenure there predates the Negritude movement, her musical training was enriched by interaction with African and Afro-Caribbean students in Paris. In 1931 she enrolled with advanced standing as a sophomore at Oberlin College in Ohio Her statement of intent there recorded in the college s archives made ...

Article

Robert L. Gale

Graham, Shirley (11 November 1896–27 March 1977), musical composer and director, author, and political activist also known as Shirley Graham Du Bois was born Lola Bell Graham in Indianapolis Indiana the daughter of the Reverend David A Graham an African Methodist Episcopal minister and Etta Bell She accompanied them when her father held pastorates in New Orleans Colorado Springs and Spokane He delighted her with stories about important blacks in American history In his churches she learned to play the piano and the pipe organ and to conduct choirs In 1914 she graduated from high school in Spokane took business school courses and worked in government offices in Spokane and Seattle After she married Shadrach T McCanns in 1921 she gave private music lessons and played the organ in white movie theaters hidden backstage She had two sons Robert and David and was either widowed in 1924 ...

Article

Jeffrey Green

African‐American composer born in Charleston, South Carolina, where his father had recently founded an orphanage where vocational training included music. Jenkins abandoned his studies in Atlanta to play the clarinet with a band appearing at the Anglo‐American Exhibition in London in 1914. The band's performance was a success, and Jenkins decided to remain in England after the band's return to the United States. He then enrolled as a student at the Royal Academy of Music. His studies included composition with Frederick Corder, a Wagner enthusiast. He taught the clarinet, and graduated in 1921. With Caribbean students in the Coterie of Friends, Jenkins mounted a concert in 1919 with himself conducting; four instrumentalists were from the Southern Syncopated Orchestra, an American group in Britain until 1921. They played his Charlestonia, an orchestral work with three black melodies, and works by Samuel Coleridge‐Taylor.

John Alcindor ...

Article

Gayle Murchison

clarinetist, composer, and conductor, was born in Charleston, South Carolina, the son of Daniel Jenkins, a former slave, minister, and founder-director of the Jenkins Orphanage Band, and Lena James. Jenkins attended the Avery Institute in Charleston. As a child he learned to play violin, clarinet, and piano. His first music teachers were his father and other instructors at the orphanage, which was founded in December 1891 and formally incorporated as the Orphan Aid Society in July 1892. By the time he was fourteen years old, Jenkins had learned to play all the instruments of his father's brass band. In 1908 he entered Atlanta Baptist College (now Morehouse College), where he studied violin with Kemper Harreld Jenkins participated in the symphony orchestra glee club and other musical activities During vacations he performed directed and toured with the orphanage band Jenkins left college during the ...

Article

Thomas L. Riis

(b Jacksonville, FL, Aug 11, 1873; d New York, Nov 11, 1954). American singer, composer, arranger and conductor. He studied singing and the piano at the New England Conservatory in 1893, and in 1896 appeared with John Isham’s concert company, Oriental America, whose repertory consisted of solos and ensembles from serious and light opera. He returned to Florida to teach but, attracted by New York theatre, moved north again in 1899 with his brother James Weldon Johnson. He then met Robert ‘Bob’ Cole, a fellow Southerner and experienced vaudevillian with whom he developed an original and suave vaudeville act: both sang and Johnson accompanied at the piano.

Within two years of meeting Cole and the Johnson brothers had become one of the most financially successful songwriting partnerships of the era They maintained a close creative relationship and cultivated influential performers May ...

Article

Carolyn Wedin

composer, pianist, actor, singer. Given the name planned for a daughter, with “John” added to indicate gender, John Rosamond Johnson was the second son born to James and Helen Louise Dillet Johnson in Jacksonville, Florida. With his older and more widely known brother, James Weldon, Johnson learned his first music harmonizing with the hymns, spirituals, and art songs that his Bahamian mother, who was also a teacher, picked out on the piano. He rapidly became adept at the keyboard, causing his big brother to take up the guitar and then violin in attempted competition. In 1890, at age seventeen, Johnson headed to Boston, where he remained for six years, studying piano, organ, composition, and voice at the New England Conservatory, with breaks to work to pay his way. After a year touring and making his acting debut with John Isham'sOriental America (1896 ...

Article

Jennifer Wood

John Rosamond Johnson was born in Jacksonville, Florida, to Helen Dillet, the first black public schoolteacher in Florida, and James Johnson, the headwaiter at a local restaurant. He and his younger brother, James Weldon Johnson, were raised in a cultured and economically secure home, a rarity for African Americans in the South at that time. Their mother read Dickens novels to them before bed, and they received music lessons from an early age. Indeed, John began playing the piano as a toddler. He later attended Atlanta University in Georgia, and his brother followed eight years later.

When Johnson graduated in 1899 from the New England Conservatory in Boston where he had studied classical music he realized that he wanted to explore the realm of musical comedy He became a vocalist with Oriental America an African American opera company whose productions differed from the pejorative stereotypical ...

Article

Jennifer Wood

composer, performer, and anthologist, was born in Jacksonville, Florida, to Helen Dillet, the first black public schoolteacher in Florida, and James Johnson, the headwaiter at a local restaurant. He and his younger brother, James Weldon Johnson, were raised in a cultured and economically secure home, a rarity for African Americans in the South in this era. Their mother read Dickens novels to them every night before bed, and they received music lessons from an early age. Indeed, John began playing the piano as a toddler. He went on to attend Atlanta University in Georgia, and his brother followed eight years later.

When Johnson graduated in 1899 from the New England Conservatory in Boston where he had studied classical music he realized that he wanted to explore the realm of musical comedy He became a vocalist with Oriental America an African American opera company ...