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Jane Brodsky Fitzpatrick

first African American member of the Oklahoma City Council, family physician, and civic leader, was born in Trinidad, West Indies, to Gertrude St. John, a domestic worker, and John Atkins. He had one younger sister. Charles Atkins immigrated to the United States, arriving at Ellis Island in March 1929. He was required to attend Dewitt Clinton High School in the Bronx, New York City, because the United States did not accept his education credentials from Trinidad. One of the first black students at DeWitt, he graduated in 1933. Aided by the Urban League, he worked as a summer counselor to earn money for college. Although he took some classes at City College of New York, he moved to North Carolina to attend St. Augustine's, an Episcopalian historically black college in Raleigh. He graduated in 1941 with a bachelor's degree in Chemistry. On 27 March 1943Atkins ...

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Joann Buckley

the son of Richard J. Bass, a shoe and clothing salesman, and Rosa Bass. Urbane and his five brothers and sisters grew up on East Duval Street in Richmond. After graduating from Virginia Union University in 1902, he earned his medical degree at Leonard Medical College of Shaw University in Raleigh, North Carolina in 1906. While there he met his future wife, Maude Vass, sister of another Leonard student, Rufus Vass.

After he married Maude, Bass opened a practice in his hometown, Richmond, Virginia. By 1909 the couple had moved to Fredericksburg, where he became the city’s first African American physician since Reconstruction to establish a medical practice and pharmacy. Bass’s practice on William Street was well received by the African American community. By 1917 his practice was growing as was his family nevertheless when America entered World War I this father of four volunteered One of ...

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Togarma Rodriguez

was born on 6 July 1919 in San Pedro de Macorís to Eduardo Maturino Charles and Alicia Dunlop. At the age of 21, he married Luz del Carmen Vizcaino, his wife until his death sixty-seven years later. The couple had six children: Carmen Mireya, Nelson Eduardo, Eduardo Aníbal, Mirtha Gladys, Minerva, and Altagracia.

He completed his secondary education at Santo Domingo’s old Escuela Normal and later enrolled in the Universidad de Santo Domingo, where in 1946 he graduated with a medical degree as part of a larger cadre of talented peers who were responsible for the advancement of medical sciences in the Dominican Republic. Among them were Mariano Lebrón Saviñón, Mario Fernández Mena, Simón Hoffiz, Adolfo Pérez González, Juan Read Encarnación, Julio César García, Napoleón Perdomo, and Jaime Acosta Torres.

Charles Dunlop believed in serving his people and making his medical skills available to every Dominican irrespective of means He ...

Article

Joseph Wilson

Michigan politician. Born in Detroit, Charles Coles Diggs Jr. attended the University of Michigan and Fisk University and served in the U.S. Army during World War II. Following in his father's footsteps, Diggs worked as a funeral director in his family's business in Detroit, then was elected to his father's seat in the Michigan state senate in 1950. After sponsoring the state's Fair Employment Practices Commission, Diggs was elected to the U.S. House of Representatives in 1954 as the first African American congressman from Michigan.

In the first year of his congressional career Diggs asserted leadership and became involved in the civil rights movement he spoke before ten thousand people attending a Mississippi conference organized by the largest civil rights group in the state the Regional Council of Negro Leadership Returning to Mississippi later that year he attended the notorious trial of the accused murderers of Emmett Till the ...

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Daryl A. Carter

United StatesCongressman, was born in Detroit, Michigan, to Charles Diggs Sr., a mortician, and Mamie Ethel Jones Diggs, a homemaker. As the product of a middle-class family, he learned politics at the knee of his father. Charles Sr. owned a mortuary, an insurance company, and an ambulance company. More importantly, Charles Sr. was very active politically, eventually serving in the Michigan State Senate. Detroit was also a major destination for African Americans escaping the South during the Great Migration, and thousands relocated to Detroit in the search for jobs and security. The combination of his father and the tectonic shifts taking place in Detroit seemed to have prompted the younger Diggs to excel academically. He graduated from Miller High School in 1940 and briefly attended the University of Michigan He transferred however to Fisk University after a couple of years While he was at Fisk ...

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Shennette Garrett-Scott

child actor, was born Allen Clayton Hoskins in Boston to Florence (maiden name unknown) and Allen C. Hoskins Sr. He had one sister, Jane Florence. His parents’ occupations are not known.

Silent film director Hal Roach signed Hoskins to star in his Our Gang short comedy films when Hoskins was between twelve and eighteen months old. Roach had asked the father of Ernie “Sunshine Sammy” Morrison, a black child actor in the series, to find a dark-skinned child actor with long hair to play Sammy's younger sister. Morrison returned with Hoskins; Roach liked the toddler immediately and felt that he could play either a boy or a girl because of his long braids. Initially, the studios remained vague about Farina's gender in the earliest Our Gang shorts he sometimes wore dresses and at other times pants After several films his character Farina was established as Sunshine Sammy and ...

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Stephen Truhon

educator and psychologist, was born in News Ferry, Virginia, to Annie Vassar and Thomas Long. During his childhood, his family moved to Richmond, where he attended and graduated from Wayland Academy, then part of Virginia Union University. He continued his education at Virginia Union University and transferred to Howard University in Washington, D.C., where he received Bachelor of Science and Bachelor of Education degrees in 1915. He attended Clark University in Worcester, Massachusetts, as a University Fellow, where he received an M.A. in Psychology in 1916 under the direction of G. Stanley Hall, considered one of the founders of American psychology. Long was arguably the first black to receive a postgraduate degree in psychology in the United States.

He was accepted in the doctoral program in psychology at Clark University, which included a scholarship, but did not attend. He taught psychology at Howard University from 1916 ...

Article

E. Beardsley

physician and professional leader, was born in Columbia, South Carolina, the orphaned son of unknown parents. As with many African Americans of the post–Civil War era, it was Reconstruction that gave McClennan a chance at a larger life. In 1872, at the height of Reconstruction in South Carolina (and thanks to the influence of a guardian uncle), he became a page in the black-dominated state senate. There he won the notice and friendship of the influential legislator Richard H. “Daddy” Cain. That fall Cain ran successfully for Congress, and in 1873, after McClennan passed a competitive examination, Cain appointed his young protégé to the U.S. Naval Academy at Annapolis, Maryland.

Only the second African American student to enter Annapolis McClennan who was light skinned enough to pass for white but never denied his race found that the navy had made no accommodation to the new racial ...

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Joann Buckley and W. Douglas Fisher

physician, soldier, minister, school principal and educator, community leader, and farmer was born on the Rucker plantation near Cannonsburg in rural Mississippi, about thirteen miles from Natchez, to Peter C. Rucker and Mary Ellen Ardella (Screws) Rucker. His grandfather was a white plantation owner. His father, a mulatto, was an evangelical preacher who died in 1911 when Rucker was just nineteen. His mother was a teacher who trained at the Tuskegee Normal School in Tuskegee, Alabama. Rucker grew up with two brothers and three sisters and was the second-oldest child.

Educated in segregated public schools in Natchez, Rucker completed a college preparatory program in 1911 at Natchez Junior College He made his way to Memphis Tennessee by working on a railway baggage car Then he worked in a Memphis department store as an elevator operator shoe department repairman and as a shipping clerk From ...

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Joann Buckley and W. Douglas Fisher

Egbert T. Scott came from a large, successful family in Wilmington. His father was a grocer from Virginia. His mother taught at Williston, Wilmington’s leading African American high school. Like several of his older brothers, Scott worked his way through Biddle University (now Johnson C. Smith University) in Charlotte, North Carolina, graduating in 1909 with an arts & sciences degree. After Biddle he moved to the state capital, Raleigh, to study at Shaw University’s Leonard Medical College where he was awarded his M.D. in 1913.

Following graduation Scott moved to Washington, DC, where he interned for a year at Freedmen’s Hospital. After completing his internship in 1914, he moved to Philadelphia to establish a practice. There he worked at Mercy Hospital, which had been established in 1905 and was one of two hospitals for the Philadelphia African American community When the United States entered World War I ...

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Joann Buckley and W. Douglas Fisher

Indian reservation physician, US Army Medical Reserve Corps major, was the youngest of six children of AME Church Minister Lemuel Stokes and Lucinda Stokes.

Stokes's early education was at the old Quaker academy in Greensfork Township, Indiana. In the early 1890s the family moved to Indianapolis where his brother Edwin was superintendent of the Flanner Guild Neighborhood House for the Industrial Training of Colored Boy and Girls. At seventeen Stokes briefly tried teaching, but finding it did not suit him, he resumed his education and entered the pharmaceutical department of Purdue University in Lafayette, Indiana, graduating in 1894.

Also in 1894 the Freeman newspaper reported the organization of the Atheneum Social and Literary Club in Indianapolis with “promising young physician” Fred A. Stokes as secretary. In 1896 Stokes was also a member of the board of directors of a group called “Indianapolis Literary.” By 1898 he completed graduate ...

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Roger K. Thomas

psychologist, was born in Pine Bluff, Arkansas, the son of David Alexander and Ellen Lillian, African Americans who had previously adopted the surname Sumner in honor of Massachusetts's antislavery senator Charles Sumner. Francis received his elementary education in Norfolk, Virginia, and Plainfield, New Jersey. His father was not satisfied with the secondary education in segregated schools, so he taught Sumner himself. Sumner passed a written examination to gain admission to Lincoln University in Pennsylvania in 1911. In 1915 he graduated magna cum laude with honors in English, Greek, Latin, modern foreign languages, and philosophy. Sumner said that his sole ambition was to be a writer, but he also said that he knew he would have to fall back on teaching or something else as a means of livelihood.While at Lincoln University Sumner corresponded with members of the psychology faculty at Clark University in Worcester Massachusetts ...

Article

Edward J. Robinson

stonecutter, porter, educator, funeral director, and preacher, was born a slave in Shreveport, Louisiana, the son of Zed and Betty Taylor. When Preston was one year old his parents moved to Lexington, Kentucky, where at age four young Preston heard a sermon in the First Baptist Church of Lexington and subsequently stated, “Some day I'll be a preacher” (Clement Richardson, The National Cyclopedia of the Colored Race [1919]). In 1864, at age fifteen Preston enlisted in Company G, 116th U.S. Infantry, as a drummer. He was present at the sieges of Richmond and Petersburg in Virginia, and at the surrender of Robert E. Lee. Taylor's regiment also served in Texas and New Orleans, Louisiana, before exiting the army on 17 January 1867 (Simmons, Men of Mark).

After serving in the military Taylor became a stonecutter and was skillful at ...

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Stephen Truhon

educator and psychologist, was born in Jackson, Mississippi. Both of his parents (Reverend Patrick Henry Thompson and Mrs. Sara Estelle [Byers] Thompson) taught at Jackson College. After completing his high school education at Wayland Academy in Virginia, he enrolled at Virginia Union University in Richmond, Virginia, in 1914 and earned his bachelor's degree in 1917. He received a second bachelor's degree from the University of Chicago in 1918. He was drafted into the army and was stationed at first at Camp Grant in Illinois. He later served in France, rising to the rank of infantry personnel regimental sergeant major.

After his discharge he returned to the University of Chicago, where he earned his master's degree in 1920. From 1920 to 1921 he served as psychology instructor at Virginia Union University. He was director of instruction at the Alabama State Normal School from 1921 ...

Article

Joann Buckley and W. Douglas Fisher

physician, soldier, athlete, medical association leader, and choirmaster, born in Indianapolis, Indiana to Charles Henry and Mary E. (Moore) Wilson, and educated in Franklin, Indiana. He graduated from Franklin High School in 1896. He then entered Franklin College. Wilson divided his interests between educational pursuits and athletics. He was a star football player (left halfback on the 1898 team) and a member of Franklin's baseball team. He was also a member of the debating and glee clubs. While still in college, he married Mary Hugel on 12 February 1900. Their daughter Martha was born on 12 May 1901. In 1902 he became Franklin s first African American graduate earning a bachelor s degree in philosophy As the Franklin College program was modeled after Oxford University s B Phil after graduating he became known as Prof Arthur Wilson He was then ...

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Joann Buckley

then part of the Danish Virgin Islands, to William Wilson and Charlotte Petersen. His mother died when he was only five years old. He was the last of eight children and was raised by his older sister Alice, a dressmaker. His early education was at Danish schools in Frederiksted, St. Croix. In 1905 he emigrated to the United States and lived with older siblings in the New York area. He was one of four black graduates of Jersey City High School in 1910. He had the highest grade point average in his class—93.84 percent.

In 1910 Wilson was accepted into a special program that enabled students to complete their A.B. at Columbia College in New York City and medical degrees at Columbia’s College of Physicians and Surgeons in six years. After graduating in 1916 he obtained a one year internship at Freedman s Hospital in Washington DC When ...