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Marlene L. Daut

escaped slave, navy landsman, and U.S. Medal of Honor recipient, was born in Natchez, Mississippi, in 1841 of unknown parentage. Brown was a slave in Mississippi on a cotton plantation, and nothing is known of his childhood or to whom he belonged. In the early 1860s, at the start of the Civil War, Brown ran away from his master on a skiff that eventually managed to reach a Union ship stationed on the Mississippi River. This encounter with the navy probably accounts for his subsequent enlistment. The navy was a likely choice for an escaped slave; many escaped slaves, as well as free blacks from the North, were often drawn to the service because of its better pay and purported fairer treatment of blacks. Brown enlisted in the Union navy on 18 March 1863 under the title 1st Class Boy and was officially described as a Contraband Negro five ...

Article

John Herschel Barnhill

Black Seminole scout, was born either in Arkansas or in Indian territory west of Arkansas. Nothing is known of his parents or childhood. Sixteen Native Americans won the Medal of Honor for their service in the Indian Wars, as the conflicts between indigenous Native Americans and European settlers and their descendents were known. Four of them, including Factor, a private, were Seminole-Negro Indian Scouts, descendants of the slaves who had found refuge with the Seminoles of Florida during the Seminole Wars of 1817 and 1836 and later migrated to Nacimiento, Mexico, in 1850.

When the Seminoles moved to Texas in 1857 the Black Seminoles remained in Mexico rather than risk being enslaved They adapted their survival skills to the new region and became invaluable scouts serving as militia for Mexico against the Comanche and Lipan Apaches Soon though they were sought after by the segregated U S Army ...

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Glenn Allen Knoblock

Civil War sailor and Medal of Honor winner, was born a slave in Richmond, Virginia. Although nothing is known for certain of his life before the Civil War, it is likely that once the war began Mifflin escaped from his master and made his way to Union forces in Virginia. One of thousands of such slaves who were termed “contrabands” (as opposed to the more legally ambiguous terms “freeman” or “runaway slave”) by Union Army officials, Mifflin was among a large number of such men who would subsequently enlist in the Union Navy. Mifflin, who stood only five feet four inches, was twenty-five years old when he joined the navy in New York on 1 April 1864 He was first rated a landsman which was an entry level position for a recruit with no sea experience and he served on shore at the Brooklyn Navy Yard While Mifflin ...

Article

Glenn Allen Knoblock

Seminole Negro Scout and Medal of Honor Recipient, was a native of Florida. While nothing specific is known about Payne's life prior to his military service, his ancestors were formerly enslaved before running away and seeking refuge with the friendly Seminole Tribe in Florida. Indeed, the Seminoles treated the large number of black runaways that sought freedom so well that many became assimilated within the tribe, adopting its language and culture. When Payne left Florida for the southwest is unknown; he may, as several biographers claim, have been among the last group of native peoples that traveled on the Trail of Tears after 1842 when the U.S. government forcibly expelled most of the remaining Seminole Tribe after the end of the long-running Seminole War to territory in what is now Oklahoma.

Payne began his military service on 12 November 1873 enlisting in the U S Army as an Indian ...

Article

Glenn Allen Knoblock

Seminole Negro Scout and Medal of Honor Recipient, was born in Santa Rosa, Mexico. His father may have been Caesor Payne, a native of Florida. Based on his military service, it is highly probable that Isaac Payne's family, perhaps his father, was one of the many runaway slaves in Florida that sought refuge with the Seminole Tribe, subsequently adopting their culture and way of life. After the end of the Seminole War with the U.S. government in 1842, many Black Seminoles traveled the Trail of Tears to the Indian Territory in the southwest after being forcibly removed from their native land in Florida. Wary of further troubles and the possibility of being captured and reenslaved, many Black Seminoles subsequently moved further south into Mexico to start life anew. Nothing is known about Isaac Payne's family and life in Mexico as a youth prior to 1871.

On 7 ...

Article

Glenn Allen Knoblock

a Seminole IndianNegro Scout in the U.S. Army and Medal of Honor recipient, was born in Arkansas. Warrior's family background was a mix of Seminole Indian and African American heritage. This resulted when either his father or mother, like many who were enslaved in the pre-Civil War South, ran away from his or her master and found refuge and freedom with the Seminole Nation in Florida. Here they would stay and marry within the tribe. Beginning in the second decade of the nineteenth century, the Seminoles fought a series of wars with the Spanish and U.S. governments to retain their tribal lands; among those who fought in these wars were many Black Seminoles. It may be speculated that Warrior's family name was derived from their fighting abilities. When the second Seminole War ended in 1842 many among the Seminoles except for a few holdouts were forcibly removed to ...