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Paul Finkelman

civil rights pioneer, lawyer, and educator, was born Ada Louis Sipuel in Chickasha, Oklahoma, the daughter of Travis B. Sipuel, a minister and later bishop of the Church of Christ in God, one of the largest black Pentecostal churches in the United States, and Martha Bell Smith, the child of a former slave. Her parents moved to Chickasaw, Oklahoma, shortly after the Tulsa race riot of 1921.Ada s brother Lemuel had initially planned to challenge the segregationist policies of the University of Oklahoma After returning from service in World War II however he went to Howard University Law School because he did not want to delay his career with protracted litigation Ada who was younger and had been in college during the war was willing to delay her legal career for the opportunity to challenge segregation She entered Arkansas A M College on ...

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Paul Finkelman

Fisher, Ada Lois Sipuel (08 February 1924–18 October 1995), civil rights pioneer, lawyer, and educator, was born in Chickasha, Oklahoma, the daughter of Travis B. Sipuel, a minister and later bishop of the Church of Christ in God, one of the largest black Pentecostal churches in the United States, and Martha Bell Smith, the child of a former slave. Her parents moved to Chickasaw, Oklahoma, shortly after the Tulsa race riot of 1921.

Her brother Lemuel had initially planned to challenge the segregationist policies of the University of Oklahoma After returning from service in World War II he went to Howard University Law School instead because he did not want to delay his career with protracted litigation Ada who was younger and had been in college during the war was willing to delay her legal career for the opportunity to challenge segregation She entered Arkansas A M ...

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Paul Finkelman

The daughter of a minister, Ada Lois Sipuel was born in Chickasha, Oklahoma. Her brother had planned to challenge the segregationist policies of the University of Oklahoma but instead went to Howard University Law School, in part because he did not want to delay his career, having already been delayed by serving in World War II. Ada, who was younger and who had been in college during the war, was willing to delay her legal career in order to challenge segregation.

In 1946 Fisher applied for admission to the University of Oklahoma Law School but was denied because of her race. A lengthy court battle ensued. In 1948 the Supreme Court ruled that the state of Oklahoma must provide instruction for blacks equal to that given whites Unfortunately since this decision did not invalidate segregated education the regents created the Langston University School of Law located at the ...

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Casey Wells

the first African American to apply to the all‐white University of Virginia, educator and part‐time writer, was born Alice Carlotta Jackson in Richmond, Virginia, to James Edward Jackson, Sr. and Clara Louise Kersey Jackson. Her father was a local pharmacist in the Jackson Ward district of Richmond.

Alice Jackson received her education at two American Baptist Home Mission schools, Hartshorn Memorial College and Virginia Union University, both historically black educational institutions in Richmond. After Hartshorn closed its doors in 1930, Jackson attended Virginia Union University. In 1934, she completed a Bachelor of Arts degree in English at Virginia Union University and also took a few other classes at Smith College in Massachusetts. In 1935 she applied for admission to the all white University of Virginia graduate school She was the first known African American to try to be admitted into a graduate or professional school in ...

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Linda W. Reese

educator and civil rights pioneer, is a person about whom. Little is known prior to his residence in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, in 1942. He earned a bachelor's degree from Langston University and in 1943, a master's degree in Education from the University of Kansas. Throughout his career McLaurin taught education courses at Langston University, Oklahoma's segregated institution of higher education for African Americans. McLaurin and his wife, Peninah, placed a high value on education. Peninah also graduated from Langston, taught there, and operated a bookstore out of their home. In 1923 she applied for admission for a graduate degree at the University of Oklahoma and was rejected because of her race. However, Peninah and all three of their children, Dunbar, J. C., and Phyllis completed master s degrees McLaurin s sons Dunbar and J C completed doctorates after their military service during World War ...

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John R. Howard

civil rights plaintiff and social worker, was born in Houston, Texas, to James Leonard Sweatt and Ella Rose (Perry) Sweatt, whose occupations are unknown. Sixteen years before Heman's birth the United States Supreme Court had held in Plessy v. Ferguson that state-imposed racial segregation did not offend the Equal Protection clause of the Fourteenth Amendment, and hence the Texas in which Sweatt grew up was rigidly segregated. He attended the all-black Jack Yates High School, graduating in 1930, and went from there to the all-black Wiley College in Marshall, Texas, graduating in 1934.

The decade following his graduation from college saw Sweatt trying to find himself. He taught in a public school for a couple of years and then in 1937 entered the University of Michigan matriculating in biology in hopes of attending medical school He left after a year returned to Houston took a ...