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Mark A. Sanders

In 1912 Batrell published his memoir Para la historia: Apuntes autobiográficos de la vida de Ricardo Batrell Oviedo, the only account of Cuba’s final war for independence written by an Afro-Cuban. Poor and uneducated, Batrell taught himself to read and write, then composed his memoir to document the participation of Afro-Cubans in the war (approximately 60 percent of the Liberation Army was black; see Ferrer, 1999, p. 2), and to present the war from the perspective of a black soldier.

Born on the Santísima Trinidad de Oviedo sugar plantation near Sabanilla, in the province of Matanzas—Cuba’s largest sugar-producing province—Batrell worked as a field hand until the age of 15. On 2 February 1896 he joined the Liberation Army that had months earlier crossed the Spanish fortified ditch (la trocha at Puerto Píncipe and invaded the western provinces Matanzas La Habana and Pinar del Rio Serving in ...

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Juan Fandos-Rius

a gendarme police officer in the Central African Republic (CAR), born in about 1934 to Kaba Sara parents from the region of Paoua in the Ouham-Pendé region of what was then northern Ubangi-Shari, just south of its border with Chad. Soon after Ubangi-Shari became the Central Africa Republic (CAR) in the late 1950s, Izamo joined the nation's new national police force, the Gendarmerie Nationale, in which he was promoted to sergeant in 1960, captain on 1 January 1962, and chef d’escadron (major) on 1 December 1964. Izamo was appointed head of the Gendarmerie by President David Dacko on 6 March 1964, before he was promoted to major, and by 1965 he had became one of Dacko s closest advisers The Gendarmerie s mission included maintaining internal security and this made it more important for the president than the nation s army since the CAR s ...

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Richard A. Bradshaw and Juan Fandos-Rius

policeman and politician in the Central African Republic (CAR), was born 11 October 1942 at Mbaiki in the Lobaye region of Ubangi-Shari in French Equatorial Africa (FEA). He studied agricultural engineering at the Institut d’études agronomiques d’Afrique centrale (Central African Institute of Agronomic Studies) at Wakombo in the CAR, then poultry production at the École nationale d’aviculture (national aviculture school) in Rambouillet, France. By 1966, when Lamine was finishing his studies in Paris, Jean-Bédel Bokassa had seized power in the CAR; the new president was from the same ethnic group, the Ngbaka, and the same Lobaye region as Lamine. This provided Lamine with an opportunity to pursue a potentially more rewarding career, and so rather than becoming an agricultural engineer and animal husbandry expert, Lamine joined the Central African police force on 12 July 1967 and was sent to study at the École nationale supérieure de police national ...

Article

Juan Fandos-Rius

Central African general of the Gendarmerie Nationale (national police force), was born on 22 December 1936 at Fort Sibut, in the Kémo Gribinguidépartement of the French colony of Ubangi-Shari. His father, Alphonse Lingoupou, was a Banda nurse, and his mother's name was Monique Imale Awa. At age nineteen Martin joined the French army and was sent to serve in Cameroon and Algeria. He then went to school at Puget-sur-Argens in southeastern France before attending the École de Formation des Officiers du Régime Transitoire des Troupes de Marine (an officer training school) from 1962 to 1964 at Fréjus, where his classmates included the future president of the Central African Republic (CAR) André Kolingba. After promotion to second lieutenant in the Central African army on 1 October 1964 Lingoupou attended the École des Officiers de Gendarmerie Nationale in Melun and studied at the Institut de Criminologie in Paris He ...