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Halbert Barton

was born on 10 November 1953. His name comes from the Swahili word for warrior. As an academic and as a person, he is recognized for his influence and work on behalf of Afro-descendant communities in Colombia.

He is a cadastral engineer, a specialist in management and environmental education, and a professor of social and interdisciplinary research at the Universidad Distrital José Francisco de Caldas in Bogotá, from which he graduated in 2004. His thesis was titled “La construcción de la nación desde lo afroamericano: Caso Bogotá D.C.” (Afro-American Nation Building: the case of Bogotá, D.C.), which is a reference work for the study of Afro-Colombians in the country’s capital. Additionally, he holds a Ph.D. in education from Christopher Newport University in Virginia.

Ayala is a university instructor at the Universidad Distrital and an activist for black causes He works as a consultant and speaker for UNESCO and ...

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Patrick Bellegarde-Smith

Dantès Bellegarde was born in Port-au-Prince, Haiti in 1877. His family had long been at the center of Haitian politics. Bellegarde's mother was Marie Boisson and his father Jean-Louis Bellegarde. His maternal great-grandfather, Jacques Ignace Fresnel, was named judge by Jean-Jacques Dessalines, a leader of the Haitian Revolution, who became the first leader of the independent state in 1804 and soon proclaimed himself Emperor Jean-Jacques I. This same great-grandfather was later minister of justice under President Jean-Pierre Boyer, who ruled all of Haiti from 1820 to 1843. Bellegarde's paternal grandfather, Jean-Louis de Bellegarde, was a duke and marshal in Haiti's second empire during the rule of Faustin Soulouque, who declared himself emperor and ruled from 1847 to 1859. Bellegarde's aunt, Argentine Bellegarde (1842–1901), was a noted educator and an early feminist. Bellegarde married Cécile Savain (1875–1965 ...

Article

John P. Jackson

sociologist and writer, was born in Seattle, Washington, the son of Horace Roscoe Cayton Sr., a newspaper publisher, and Susie Sumner Revels, a former college instructor and sometime writer. Horace's maternal grandfather, Hiram R. Revels [Cayton], was elected senator from Mississippi at the height of Reconstruction. At the time of Horace's birth, the Cayton family was prosperous, middle class, and living in the heart of white Seattle. Soon after Horace's birth, however, the family experienced financial distress accentuated by the racism of Seattle. Growing up, Horace had various scrapes with the law, culminating in his arrest for driving a getaway car in a gas station robbery. As a teenager he attended, and soon dropped out of, reform school. He traveled widely, supporting himself as a manual laborer.

Eventually Cayton returned to Seattle where he finished high school at a Young Men s Christian Association preparatory school and ...

Article

Alonford James Robinson

Horace Cayton was born in Seattle, Washington, to activist and publisher Horace R. Cayton Sr. and Susie Revels Cayton, daughter of former United States senator Hiram Revels. Cayton dropped out of high school and joined the military, traveling to California, Mexico, and Hawaii before returning to Seattle in 1923. He finished high school and graduated from the University of Washington with a degree in sociology.

In 1934 Cayton served as assistant to the U.S. secretary of the interior, completing a study of African American workers in Birmingham, Alabama. In 1935 he was named an instructor of economics and labor at Fisk University in Nashville, Tennessee. By 1936 he returned to Chicago to direct a Works Progress Administration (WPA) study that focused on inner-city life.

Cayton worked as a columnist for the Pittsburgh Courier and coauthored a book with George S. Mitchell titled Black Workers and ...

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Sholomo B. Levy

sociologist, was born in Port of Spain, Trinidad, in what was then the British West Indies. His father, William Raphael Cox, was the captain and customs officer of a revenue schooner, a position that secured a modicum of social and financial security for his wife, Virginia Blake, and their five children. William Cox had five additional children with Oliver's stepmother, Louisa. Oliver's uncle, Reginald W. Vidale, the headmaster of St. Thomas Boys’ School in Port of Spain who later became a councilman and alderman, took primary charge of Oliver's early education and rearing.

He was a bright student, but he did not win one of St. Thomas's coveted scholarships to study in England. Because his father would only finance the education of his eldest son, Cox briefly attended a local agricultural college before securing a position as a clerk in a department store. In 1919 to ...

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Barbara A. Burg

educator and sociologist, was born in Washington, D.C., on Thanksgiving Day, the only child of Yetta Elizabeth Mavritte and John W. Cromwell Jr. Her father, a Phi Beta Kappa graduate of Dartmouth College in 1906, was the first black to become a practicing certified public accountant.

Adelaide McGuinn Cromwell grew up in a prominent family of educators in Washington, D.C. An only child, she grew up in a large townhouse on Thirteenth Street in the northwest portion of Washington, where she lived with her parents and her father's three sisters, two of whom were schoolteachers. Although she was surrounded by adults, it was her aunt Otelia Cromwell, the eldest of her father's siblings, who became an enduringly influential figure.

Named after her maternal grandmother, Adelaide (Addy) Mavritte, Adelaide Cromwell and her mother often spent weekends with her maternal grandparents who lived in Burrville in the then ...

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Marilyn Demarest Button

educator, administrator, writer, and activist, was born in Saint Paul, Minnesota, the daughter of Thomas Cornelius Cuthbert and Victoria Means. She attended grammar and secondary school in her hometown and studied at the University of Minnesota before transferring to Boston University, where she completed her BA in 1920.

Following her graduation, Cuthbert moved to Florence, Alabama, and became an English teacher and assistant principal at Burrell Normal School. Promoted to principal in 1925, she began to lead students and faculty in bold new perspectives on gender equality and interracial harmony.

In 1927 Cuthbert left Burrell to become one of the first deans of Talladega College in Talladega, Alabama. In her essay, “The Dean of Women at Work,” published in the Journal of the National Association of College Women (Apr. 1928 she articulated her belief that covert sexism at the administrative level of black colleges limited their ...

Article

Jennifer L. Freeman Marshall

anthropologist, educator, sociologist, was born Ellen Irene Diggs in Monmouth, Illinois, to Henry Charles Diggs and Alice Scott. Her working-class parents lived in a community of about ten thousand, about two hundred of whom were black. They supported their precocious child, one of five, who read voraciously and achieved the highest grade average in her school. Recognizing her ability, the Monmouth Chamber of Commerce awarded her a scholarship to attend Monmouth College in Monmouth, Illinois. In 1924 she transferred to the University of Minnesota, which offered a far larger number of courses, where she majored in sociology and minored in psychology. She received an AB degree in 1928 and then attended Atlanta University, a premier institution for the education of African Americans founded in 1865 and located in Atlanta, Georgia. The institution began to offer graduate degrees in 1929 and in 1933 under the direction ...

Article

Dennis Gouws

sociologist, business manager of The Crisis, curator, and musician, was born Augustus Granville Dill in Portsmouth, Ohio, to John Jackson and Elizabeth Stratton Dill. Having finished his secondary schooling at the age of seventeen, Dill briefly taught in Portsmouth before attending Atlanta University, where he earned his BA in 1906. Dill's extracurricular interests included playing the piano for the university choir and serving on the debating team. He earned a second BA at Harvard University in 1908 and an MA from Atlanta University on his return to Atlanta in the same year. There he was mentored by W. E. B. Du Bois, whose post as associate professor of sociology Dill assumed when Du Bois left Atlanta in 1910.

In 1913 Du Bois persuaded Dill to move to New York and assume the responsibilities of business manager and editorial assistant of The Crisis ...

Article

Augustus Dill was born in Portsmouth, Ohio, son of John Jackson and Elizabeth (Stratton) Dill. He received a B.A. in 1906 from Atlanta University, where he was a student of W. E. B. Du Bois. On Du Bois's advice, Dill went on to earn a second B.A. at Harvard University in 1908.

Dill returned to Atlanta to assist Du Bois on his sociological project of documenting all dimensions of black life in American society. From 1911 to 1915 he coedited four major studies. In 1910, Dill replaced his mentor as associate professor of sociology when Du Bois left Atlanta University to found The Crisis, the journal of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP). In 1913, Du Bois hired Dill as business manager for The Crisis, a post he remained in until 1928 Arrested that year in New ...

Article

Joyce A. A. Camper

sociologist, social worker, writer, and teacher, was born Ophelia Settle in Red River County, Texas, one of seven children of Sarah Garth, who died when Settle was four years old, and Green Wilson Settle, a teacher and later principal at the Deaf, Dumb, and Blind Institute in Raft, Oklahoma. The emphasis the Settle family placed upon education influenced Settle's aspiration to become a teacher. She graduated from Howard University with an AB in English in 1925 and taught at the Orange County Training School in Chapel Hill, North Carolina, for a year. She then completed a master's degree in Sociology in 1928 at the University of Pennsylvania.

In 1929 Settle embarked on a journey that culminated in the project that became her lifelong passion. Charles Spurgeon Johnson then director of the newly formed Department of Social Science at Fisk University hired Settle as ...

Article

Jan Marie Fritz

civil rights activist, clinical sociologist, and educator, was born in Johnston, a small town in rural Edgefield County, South Carolina. His father, Charles, a laborer, was illiterate, and his mother, Flora, a cook who took in washing, could barely read and write. Both of his parents encouraged him and the three younger children to work hard, be frugal, ask questions, and read. Gomillion remembered going alone and with his mother to ask “white folks to give us magazines,” and remembered that his mother regularly brought home copies of the Chicago Defender and the NAACP's Crisis.

When he was sixteen years old Gomillion left home to pursue his high school education at Paine College in Augusta Georgia He was admitted on probation because he had completed only twenty six months of formal education Although he worked the whole time he was at Paine to pay for ...

Article

Leyla Keough

Stuart Hall, a founder of the New Left and of the interdisciplinary field known as cultural studies, has devoted his career to developing a framework for understanding issues of race, ethnicity, and cultural practice and their practical relationship to contemporary British politics.

Hall was born to upwardly mobile middle-class parents in Kingston, Jamaica. In 1951 he won a Rhodes scholarship to Merton College at Oxford University, which he has called “the hub, the motor, that creates Englishness.” He earned a doctoral degree in American literature.

During the 1950s Hall became involved in West Indian and socialist politics. He was a founding member of the New Left Club and its publication Universities and Left Review. This journal merged with social historian E. P. Thompson's The New Reasoner in 1959 and became the New Left Review Hall was its first editor In this journal Hall challenged the failure ...

Article

Lisa Clayton Robinson

Born to former slaves in Lowndes County, Alabama, Elizabeth Ross Haynes became a pioneering urban sociologist. Haynes graduated valedictorian of the State Normal School (now Alabama State University) in 1900. She received an A.B. from Fisk University in 1903, and later received an M.A. in sociology from Columbia University in 1923.

After graduation from Fisk, Haynes taught school and worked for segregated branches of the Young Women's Christian Association (YWCA). In 1910, she married George Haynes, a sociologist and cofounder of the National Urban League; their son was born in 1912. After her marriage, Haynes continued to work in unsalaried positions.

From 1918 to 1922, Haynes worked for the U.S. Department of Labor, and from 1920 to 1922 she served as domestic service secretary for the U S Employment Service Throughout her career Haynes was especially concerned with black women ...

Article

Iris Carlton-LaNey

social scientist, politician, and community leader, was born in Mount Willing, Lowndes County, Alabama, the daughter of Henry Ross and Mary Carnes. Elizabeth's parents were hard workers who amassed some wealth through the purchase of land that eventually grew to become a 1,500-acre plantation, though little else is known about them beyond their commitment to their only child's well-being and success. Ross attended the State Normal School in Montgomery and later won a scholarship to Fisk University, where she was awarded an AB degree in 1903. She taught school in Alabama and Texas for several years after graduation, and during 1905 and 1907 she attended summer school at the University of Chicago.

In 1908 Ross was invited to work with colored students for the student department of the national board of the Young Women s Christian Association YWCA In this position she traveled extensively ...

Article

Daly Guilamo

was born in Santo Domingo, capital of the Dominican Republic, on 17 August 1954. After a childhood spent in one of the poorest neighborhoods of the capital city, she spent the formative years of her youth in the eastern city of San Pedro de Macoris, before migrating to the United States with her parents in December 1973 settling in New York City where she continued her studies She pursued an academic life primarily in public institutions of higher education specializing in sociology and Latin American studies Hernández s life work has demonstrated a wide ranging passion for Dominican and Dominican American intellectual inquiry An educator public intellectual wife and mother she proudly asserts her feminist lineage and pays tribute to the women in her family especially her grandmother and mother Mercedez who never kowtowed to the pressures of patriarchy which both in the Dominican Republic and the United ...

Article

Yollette Trigg

sociologist, promoter of the Harlem Renaissance, and first black president of Fisk University. Charles Spurgeon Johnson was born in Bristol, Virginia, where his parents, the Reverend Charles Henry Johnson and Winifred Branch Johnson, reared their son in a religious home and a nurturing black middle-class environment that facilitated his social and intellectual development. Charles H. Johnson was the pastor of the progressive Lee Baptist Church in Bristol. Winifred Johnson was a homemaker who cared for Johnson and his five other siblings.

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Richard Robbins

Johnson, Charles Spurgeon (24 July 1893–27 October 1956), sociologist and educator was born in Bristol Virginia the son of Reverend Charles Henry Johnson a minister in the black Baptist church and Winifred Branch Bristol a small city in the state s far southwest corner had the usual pattern of racial segregation and it is where Charles received his primary education He was then sent to Richmond to a private Baptist academy linked to Virginia Union University a leading black institution where he completed his undergraduate degree with honors in 1916 Working part time in the Richmond ghetto he was shocked by the racial discrimination and economic deprivation marking southern Negro life That led him to decide on graduate work in sociology to concentrate on race relations and to focus in particular on conditions in the urban industrial North in the setting of the Great Migration the northward ...

Article

Marybeth Gasman

Charles Spurgeon Johnson was the eldest of six children born to Charles Henry Johnson, a Baptist minister, and Winifred Branch. Because there was no high school for blacks in Bristol, he moved to Richmond and attended the Wayland Academy. In 1913 Johnson entered college at Virginia Union and graduated in only three years While at college Johnson volunteered with the Richmond Welfare Association and one incident there profoundly influenced his future career During the holiday season while delivering baskets to needy people he encountered a pregnant woman lying on a pile of rags moaning in labor Although none of the doctors in the area would help the young woman Johnson persuaded a midwife to deliver the baby He then tried to locate a home for the young woman but those he approached shut the door in his face Some families rejected the young woman because she was ...

Article

Marybeth Gasman

sociologist and college president, was born in Bristol, Virginia, the eldest of six children of Charles Henry Johnson, a Baptist minister, and Winifred Branch. Because there was not a high school for blacks in Bristol, he moved to Richmond and attended the Wayland Academy. In 1913 Johnson entered college at Virginia Union in Richmond and graduated in only three years While at college Johnson volunteered with the Richmond Welfare Association and one incident there had a profound impact on his future career During the holiday season while delivering baskets to needy people he came across a young woman lying on a pile of rags groaning in labor Although none of the doctors in the area would help the young woman Johnson persuaded a midwife to deliver the baby He then tried to locate a home for the young woman but those he approached shut the door in ...