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Article

Jeremy Rich

Chadian politician and sociologist, was born on 21 January 1959. Her father, a high-ranking army officer in the army of dictator François Tombalbaye from the early 1960s until the coup that led to Tombalbaye’s death in 1975, was an extremely influential man. He remains extremely unpopular among many northern Chadians for his alleged brutality in crushing rebel groups. Allafi had nine siblings, many of whom went on to receive advanced educations. Since her father was often transferred on military postings, Allafi studied at Fort-Lamy, Sarh, the Chadian capital of N’Djamena, and she passed her baccalaureate examination at Bongor in December 1980. The chaotic political situation in Chad from 1980 to 1982 prevented her from immediately commencing her undergraduate education. She married a Protestant customs officer on 11 April 1981, and she had two children with him. She worked as a teacher in 1981 and ...

Article

Elisa Larkin Nascimento

born in Guaraçu, state of Espirito Santo, Brazil, on 28 July 1913 and known to family, friends, and acquaintances as “Rodrigues” or “Rodrigues Alves.” He lost his mother, Maria da Conceição Fernando Alves, at the age of 7 and went to work with his father, Hipólito Rodrigues Alves, farming one of his small plots of land. As a boy and youth, Rodrigues Alves worked rural jobs, driving cattle and running donkeys and burros. He worked for the state fire department and then enlisted in the army, where he rose to the rank of corporal.

In 1932 the neighboring state of São Paulo declared its Constitutionalist Revolution Rodrigues Alves was among the troops sent to quash the rebellion When federal forces prevailed Rodrigues Alves s unit moved to São Paulo He went to live at a Mrs Fortunata s boarding house where black activist Abdias Nascimento then also a young ...

Article

Halbert Barton

was born on 10 November 1953. His name comes from the Swahili word for warrior. As an academic and as a person, he is recognized for his influence and work on behalf of Afro-descendant communities in Colombia.

He is a cadastral engineer, a specialist in management and environmental education, and a professor of social and interdisciplinary research at the Universidad Distrital José Francisco de Caldas in Bogotá, from which he graduated in 2004. His thesis was titled “La construcción de la nación desde lo afroamericano: Caso Bogotá D.C.” (Afro-American Nation Building: the case of Bogotá, D.C.), which is a reference work for the study of Afro-Colombians in the country’s capital. Additionally, he holds a Ph.D. in education from Christopher Newport University in Virginia.

Ayala is a university instructor at the Universidad Distrital and an activist for black causes He works as a consultant and speaker for UNESCO and ...

Article

Sônia Beatriz dos Santos

was born on 27 March 1953 in the city of Porto Alegre, state of Rio Grande do Sul.

Bairros’s interest in political issues began when she was in school. In 1979 she adopted the city of Salvador, state of Bahia, as her main residence; it was in this city that she began to participate in the Unified Black Movement (Movimento Negro Unificado, MNU); she remained involved in this organization until 1994.

She began her activism in the women’s movement in 1981 within the Women’s Group of the MNU. Bairros was a vocal member of this group, and she participated in the main initiatives of the black movement in Bahia and Brazil. In 1991 she was elected the first national coordinator of the MNU.

In 1994 Luiza Bairros joined the Labor and Social Action Secretariat of the State of Bahia managing support for independent workers programs and participating in ...

Article

Marcia Lima

was born on 3 February 1967 in Niterói, Rio de Janeiro State. In 1987 he received his bachelor’s degree in social sciences from the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro and went on to earn a master’s degree in sociology from Rio de Janeiro University’s Institute of Research (IUPERJ), where he defended his thesis titled “Race and Educational Achievement in Brazil.”

In 1986, while still an undergraduate student, Barcelos worked as a researcher at the Center of Afro-Asiatic Studies (CSAA/CEAA). Founded in 1973 the CSAA CEAA was one of the main institutions in Brazil dedicated to researching teaching and documenting race relations and the black culture of Brazil as well as African and Asian countries With the financial support of the Ford Foundation the CSAA CEAA had a positive impact in the field of race relations in Brazil providing professional training to young black researchers supporting research projects ...

Article

Anthony P. Maingot

was born in Port of Spain, Trinidad, on 16 July 1919 to a mother from Nevis and a father from Carriacou, the largest of the Grenadines and a dependency of Grenada. His parentage thus reflects the mobility of the people of the Eastern Caribbean. His father was a manufacturer’s representative with a very active political life. By the time young Lloyd was 17, he had experienced his father’s involvement in the Trinidad Workingman’s Association and the Citizen’s Committee. Lloyd’s father was well read and an active contributor to the various small newspapers circulating in Port of Spain, and in their neighborhood of Belmont in particular. This environment had to have nurtured the kind of articulate and critical mind that characterized his son Lloyd’s later career.

Lloyd Braithwaite’s schooling began, like that of so many other prominent black Trinidadians, when he won a scholarship to Queen’s Royal College (QRC) in 1930 ...

Article

Andrea A. Davis

was born on 20 April 1940 in the rural Jamaican village of Woodside, St. Mary. Her parents, Ernest Brodber, a farmer, and Lucy Brodber, a teacher, provided important models for her later development as a scholar and academic firmly rooted in the values of community. Brodber credits her maternal grandmother, Eva Harris, however, as her most important early influence. Harris raised seven children on her own after her husband died, earning a living as a cane farmer and using the sugar produced from her farm to make baked goods for sale. An entrepreneur before her time, she was the symbol of black women’s strength and creativity that Brodber later came to value and embody. Brodber attended Excelsior High School in Jamaica and earned a B.A. in history, with honors, from the University College of the West Indies in 1963, and an M.Sc. in sociology (1968 and Ph ...

Article

Lisa Clayton Robinson

Writer Erna Brodber was raised in rural St. Mary, Jamaica, by parents who were social activists in their small community. After graduating from high school in Kingston, she worked as a civil servant and teacher in Montego Bay before entering the University of the West Indies (UWI), where she received a B.A. degree in history in 1963. Brodber then taught at a private girls' school in Trinidad for one year before continuing her education. She earned a M.Sc. degree in sociology from UWI in 1968 and received a scholarship to study at McGill University in Canada and the University of Washington.

While living in the United States, Brodber was greatly influenced by the Black Power Movement and the women s movements of the late 1960s After returning to Jamaica she became a lecturer in sociology at UWI and earned an international reputation for her research serving ...

Article

James N. Green and Andre Pagliarini

president of Brazil (1995–2002), was born in Rio de Janeiro to Leônidas Cardoso and Nayde Silva Cardoso. His father, a general who early in his career took part in the progressive lieutenant’s revolts of 1922 and 1924, worked in the federal government under Cardoso’s great-uncle Augusto Inácio do Espírito Santo Cardoso, Getúlio Vargas’s war minister. Cardoso’s mother was born in Manaus to an important family from the state of Alagoas. She was highly cultured and would become instrumental in her husband’s political career. In 1940 Cardoso’s father was reassigned to a post in São Paulo. After attending prestigious private schools in the growing metropolis, Cardoso studied at the University of São Paulo under the tutelage of the sociologist Florestan Fernandes.

Cardoso became a well-known academic who went into exile after the military seizure of power in 1964 Although he never formally joined the Communist Party Cardoso ...

Article

Anton L. Allahar

was born in Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago, on 25 August 1901, and spent the first nineteen years of his life there before emigrating to the United States. Not much is known of his years in Trinidad, and for all practical purposes it seems he did not identify much with his country of birth. His father, William Raphael Cox, worked for the colonial government as captain of a revenue schooner and later as a customs and excise officer and was able to build a rather comfortable middle-class life for his wife (Virginia Blake Cox) and their eight children even to the point of owning a second family home and a cocoa estate in the district of Tabaquite in Central Trinidad.

In terms of his complexion, the Cox family could be described as “brown skinned.” William Cox was characterized by Herbert Hunter (1983) as strict and ...

Article

Norman O. Richmond

organizer of protests by black U.S. athletes at the 1968 Olympic Games in Mexico City. As a young activist at San Jose State University, Harry Edwards led a black student protest that forced cancellation of the school's opening football game in 1967. He then organized a national boycott to bring attention to the racism endemic to organized sports in the United States, calling for more black coaches and more equitable treatment for black athletes. His most famous crusade was as an architect of the Olympic Project for Human Rights, an effort to boycott the 1968 Summer Olympics in Mexico City The boycott failed to materialize and the OPHR instead focused on using the Olympics to give visibility to the black liberation struggle The project was both Pan Africanist and internationalist in scope black athletes from the United States would be demonstrating their solidarity with liberation movements in the ...

Article

Karl Monsma

was born on 22 July 1920 in São Paulo to Maria Fernandes, a Portuguese immigrant who worked as a maid. Florestan never knew his father, grew up in poverty, and completed only three years of schooling before going to work full time at age 9. At 17 he began attending night school, and four years later he entered the University of São Paulo, where he studied social sciences. After graduating, he gained an invitation to stay on as a teaching assistant, later completing M.A. and doctoral theses on social organization and warfare among the Tupinambá, an indigenous group decimated by the Portuguese in the sixteenth century.

In 1964 Fernandes assumed a chair as full professor of sociology at the University of São Paulo, but five years later the military dictatorship forced him into early retirement. He then taught at the University of Toronto before returning to Brazil in 1973 ...

Article

Michelle Gueraldi

Florestan Fernandes strongly influenced the study of race relations in Brazil by documenting the importance of race in Brazilian society and the existence of racial discrimination. He was one of a group of social scientists who challenged the Brazilian myth of racial democracy, which held that racism was not a significant factor in Brazilian society. Fernandes criticized what he termed the Brazilian “prejudice of having no prejudice.” Together with other Brazilian and foreign social scientists, partly inspired and funded by the UNESCO Race Relations Project of the United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization, Fernandes revolutionized the study of race. According to fellow social scientist Carlos Hasenbalg, Fernandes “substantiated the significance of racism and racial discrimination in industrial and capitalist Brazil, but saw them as an archaic survival from the seigniorial, pre-capitalist and pre-industrial past.”

Fernandes was born in the city of São Paulo, Brazil, in 1920 His ...

Article

Ángela Lucía Agudelo González

was born in Colombia in 1959. One of the most well-known academics in the department of Chocó, he earned a master’s degree in rural development from the Javeriana University in Bogotá and became a specialist in methods and techniques of applied research in education and science. He has been the director of the John von Neumann Environmental Research Institute of the Pacific and has worked at the Technological University of Chocó since 1988.

Among García’s publications is his 1987 master s thesis on rural development Efectos de la colonización en la estructura agraria del Urabá Chocoano Acandi Unguía Effects of colonization on the structure of colonization in the agricultural structure of Urabá Chocana Acandi Unguía published by Javeriana University His objective was to analyze the dynamics between the rural economy and the market economy in the Chocó side of Urabá a northern region that also includes part ...

Article

Michelle Gueraldi

Lélia de Almeida Gonzales obtained several academic degrees, including a bachelor's degree in history and philosophy at the Rio de Janeiro State University, a master's degree in communications at the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, and a doctorate in social anthropology at the University of São Paulo. She also directed the Department of Sociology at Rio de Janeiro Catholic University.

Gonzales figured prominently in post-1950s intellectual life in Brazil. She was one of the first black women to teach at the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, and in 1978 was one of the founders of the Movimento Negro Unificado (Unified Black Movement). In 1979 Gonzales was also one of the founders of the Working Group on Themes and Problems of the Black Population in Brazil at Candido Mendes University in Rio de Janeiro The group has produced various unique essays on Afro Brazilian issues A strong ...

Article

Leyla Keough

Stuart Hall, a founder of the New Left and of the interdisciplinary field known as cultural studies, has devoted his career to developing a framework for understanding issues of race, ethnicity, and cultural practice and their practical relationship to contemporary British politics.

Hall was born to upwardly mobile middle-class parents in Kingston, Jamaica. In 1951 he won a Rhodes scholarship to Merton College at Oxford University, which he has called “the hub, the motor, that creates Englishness.” He earned a doctoral degree in American literature.

During the 1950s Hall became involved in West Indian and socialist politics. He was a founding member of the New Left Club and its publication Universities and Left Review. This journal merged with social historian E. P. Thompson's The New Reasoner in 1959 and became the New Left Review Hall was its first editor In this journal Hall challenged the failure ...

Article

Dustin Garlitz

was born Stuart McPhail Hall on 3 February 1932 in Kingston, Jamaica. Hall’s father, Herman, was the first nonwhite person to hold a senior position with United Fruit of Jamaica, where he was chief accountant. His mother, Jessie, was of white ancestry and thought of herself as part of the larger British Empire. Hall would later recall the diversity of cultures and traditions in which he was raised: “part Scottish, part African, part Portuguese Jew” (as reported in his obituary that appeared in The Independent).

His later intellectual work on the hybridity of culture was further shaped by the traditional English education he received at Jamaica College in Kingston, while allying himself with the emerging struggle for independence from colonial rule. Awarded a Rhodes Scholarship to study at Oxford University, Hall arrived in Britain in 1951 as part of a larger Caribbean migration Studying English at Oxford s ...

Article

Daly Guilamo

was born in Santo Domingo, capital of the Dominican Republic, on 17 August 1954. After a childhood spent in one of the poorest neighborhoods of the capital city, she spent the formative years of her youth in the eastern city of San Pedro de Macoris, before migrating to the United States with her parents in December 1973 settling in New York City where she continued her studies She pursued an academic life primarily in public institutions of higher education specializing in sociology and Latin American studies Hernández s life work has demonstrated a wide ranging passion for Dominican and Dominican American intellectual inquiry An educator public intellectual wife and mother she proudly asserts her feminist lineage and pays tribute to the women in her family especially her grandmother and mother Mercedez who never kowtowed to the pressures of patriarchy which both in the Dominican Republic and the United ...

Article

Courtney J. Campbell

was born in Itu, São Paulo, Brazil, the child of Andrea Ianni (father) and Anna Maria Guariglia Ianni (mother), both Italian immigrants from Santa Maria de Castellabate in Salerno. Ianni’s parents died when he was still quite young—his father in 1934 and his mother in 1939—leaving him under the care of his oldest brother, Constantino. Ianni was involved in a car accident when he was 22 that resulted in the death of two of his brothers. After this accident, Ianni moved to the town of Osasco, where he lived with his brother Antônio. He opened a small printing shop in Osasco, enrolled in the Universidade de São Paulo (São Paulo University, USP), and married Eline Maria Zoiner, with whom he would have two daughters. He was politically active in the 1940s, supporting the war against Nazi fascism in Europe, and opposing the Estado Novo (10 November 1937 29 ...

Article

John Wess Grant

Joyce Ladner has been one of the leading proponents of the racial uplift tradition that bore close ties to the activities of black clubwomen at the turn of the twentieth century. Ladner’s many years of activism and academic pursuits have focused on advancing a tradition that adheres to the core values of self-help, self-respect, honesty, strong families, religious faith, and education as the means to social uplift. Her steadfast commitment to these values, reflected in her numerous books and articles on subjects such as black families, higher education, poverty, parenting, and children, was born out of her experiences in the segregated South and the civil rights movement. These experiences also played a key role in the making of Ladner the activist, scholar, and community leader.

Joyce A. Ladner was born in a hamlet on the outskirts of Hattiesburg, Mississippi. Ladner credited her stepfather and especially her mother, Anne Ruth Perryman ...