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Jennifer Vaughn

author, educator, and economist, was born Richard Franklin America Jr. in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, to Richard Franklin America Sr. and Arline America. In 1960 America received a BS in Economics from Pennsylvania State University and in 1965 an MBA from the Graduate School of Business at Harvard University. Afterward, he joined the Stanford Research Institute in Menlo Park, California, where he worked for the next four years as a Development Economist in the Urban and Regional Economics Group.

In April 1969 America published “What Do You People Want?” in the Harvard Business Review In it he advocated major federal subsidies to facilitate economic equality and large scale participation of blacks in the corporate world and made suggestions as to how these goals might be accomplished including the transfer of corporations to black shareholders and managers The article offered a radical approach to policy pertaining to reparations and ...

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Marlene Attzs

was born in Trinidad and Tobago on 27 February 1934. He received his education at the Tacarigua Anglican School and Queen’s Royal College (Trinidad), Downing College (Cambridge University), and Mansfield College (Oxford University). Best launched the Tapia House Movement in 1968, was a founding member of the New World Group, and promoted Caribbean thought as publisher and managing editor of the Trinidad and Tobago Review, as well as through leadership in consultancies and institutes. Lloyd Best served regionally through the University of the West Indies (UWI).

In 1957 Best joined the Faculty of UWI in Mona, Jamaica, as a lecturer in economics and a fellow at the Institute of International Relations, and he remained in academic employment until 1976, when he resigned to contest the Trinidad and Tobago general elections of 1976 under the rubric of the Tapia House Movement THM a party Best had ...

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Sholomo B. Levy

economist and educator, was born in Newelton, Louisiana, the fourth of five children of Andrew Brimmer Sr., a sharecropper and warehouse worker, and Vellar (Davis) Brimmer. The family abandoned farming when they found it impossible to make a decent living under the crop lien system, an economic arrangement in which farmers borrowed money at high interest rates to work land that they did not own in hopes of sharing profits that rarely materialized. His parents' efforts to escape debt and poverty were young Andrew's first exposure to economic forces and monetary policy.

As a child Andrew was bright and serious. In 1944 he graduated from Tensa Parish Training School, a segregated high school in St. Joseph, Louisiana. Brimmer joined the U.S. Army and served from May 1945 to November 1946 becoming a staff sergeant in the 645th Ordinance Ammunition Company in Hawaii After the war he took ...

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Jamal Donaldson Briggs

economist, philanthropist, and educator was born to William H. Brown, a government employee, and Julia Brown (maiden name unknown), a homemaker, in Chicago, Illinois. He was the youngest of three children. William's employment with the City of Chicago afforded Browne a middle-class upbringing on the city's Southside, which was home to a large African American community. His family lived just a few blocks south of Washington Park, an area where the well-off, but not the most elite, residents lived.

Browne became fascinated with economics while attending the University of Illinois at Champaign-Urbana in the early 1940s. He was the only African American economics major at that university to graduate with honors in 1944 Despite his own relatively comfortable middle class background his research focused on those less privileged than himself particularly on the lack of economic opportunity among African Americans during the Great Depression After graduating ...

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Rayford W. Logan

William H. Dean, Jr. was born on July 6, 1910, in Lynchburg, Virginia, the only son and the third of four children of the Rev. and Mrs. William Henry Dean, Sr. He spent his early years in Lynchburg, Virginia; Washington, D.C.; Baltimore, Maryland; and Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, where his father was a pastor in Methodist churches. In 1926 Dean graduated as valedictorian of his class from Douglass High School, Baltimore. Recipient of a scholarship from the Baltimore chapter of the Alpha Phi Alpha fraternity, he was elected to Phi Beta Kappa in his junior year at Bowdoin College in Maine and received his B.A. degree, graduating summa cum laude, in 1930. He earned his M.A. degree in 1932 and Ph.D. degree from Harvard University in Massachusetts in 1938; both degrees were in economics.

From 1933 to 1942 Dean taught economics and business administration at Atlanta ...

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Francesco L. Nepa

Abram Lincoln Harris, Jr., was born in Richmond, Virginia, the son of Abram Lincoln Harris, a butcher, and Mary Elizabeth Lee, both descendants of slaves freed before the Civil War. After completing his secondary education in the public schools of Richmond, Harris enrolled at Virginia Union University, where he earned a Bachelor of Science degree in 1922. In 1924 he received a Master of Arts degree from the University of Pittsburgh.

Harris then joined the faculty of West Virginia Collegiate Institute (later West Virginia State College), where he taught economics. He remained there until 1925, at which time he began a short stint as executive secretary of the Urban League in Minneapolis. Also in that year, Harris married Callie Ellen McGuinn; they had no children and divorced in 1955 After his year with the Urban League he went to work as a ...

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Francesco L. Nepa

economist, author, and educator, was born in Richmond, Virginia, the son of Abram Lincoln Harris, a butcher, and Mary Elizabeth Lee, both descendants of slaves freed before the Civil War. After completing his secondary education in the public schools of Richmond, Harris enrolled at Virginia Union University, where he earned a BS in 1922. In 1924 he received an MA from the University of Pittsburgh.

Harris then joined the faculty of West Virginia Collegiate Institute (later West Virginia State College), where he taught economics. He remained there until 1925, at which time he began a short stint as executive secretary of the Urban League in Minneapolis. Also in that year, Harris married Callie Ellen McGuinn; they had no children and divorced in 1955 After his year with the Urban League he went to work as a researcher for Columbia University s ...

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John H. McClendon

political economist, economic historian and theorist, and social critic. Abram Lincoln Harris Jr. was born in Richmond, Virginia; his father was a butcher and his mother a schoolteacher, and both parents were strong advocates of education and encouraged him in his pursuit of higher education. Harris earned his BS in economics and anthropology from Virginia Union in 1922 and two years later received an MA in economics from the University of Pittsburgh. Harris's thesis at Pittsburgh focused on the African American working class. Concern with the plight of African American workers remained a vital part of Harris's research agenda for most of his career. This interest is best exemplified in his seminal book The Black Worker; the Negro and the Labor Movement, which he coauthored with the noted political scientist Sterling D. Spero in 1931.

Harris began his teaching career at West Virginia State University ...

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Michael E. Latham

economist, development expert, and Nobel Laureate, was born William Arthur Lewis on St. Lucia in the West Indies, the son of George Lewis and Ida Barton teachers When Lewis was only seven his father died and his mother opened a shop to help support her family of five sons Financially assisted by the Anglican Church and inspired by his mother s unrelenting determination the precocious youngster completed the studies required for university admission at fourteen and worked as a government clerk for four years At eighteen Lewis won the St Lucia government scholarship for study in Britain and elected to attend the London School of Economics LSE Although he had wanted to be an engineer Lewis knew that neither local industry nor the British government hired blacks in that field Interested in business and curious about the nature of economics he chose instead to pursue a ...

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La TaSha B. Levy

black economist, social critic, and public intellectual. Once considered the darling of Ronald Reagan's ultraconservative administration, Loury earned notoriety as a staunch critic of the civil rights leadership, affirmative action, and the problems of the so-called black underclass. Though Loury gained fame as a black critic of conventional African American politics, he underwent a political transformation by the late 1990s, steering away from the right-wing conservative political positions that had ignited his career.

Glenn Cartman Loury was born to working-class parents in Chicago's South Side, Illinois. Loury attended Southeast Junior College prior to earning a BA in mathematics from Northwestern University and a PhD in economics from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). Loury subsequently served on the faculty at Northwestern and at the University of Michigan before becoming in 1983 the first black tenured professor in Harvard University's economics department.

Loury increased his popularity among white conservatives and conservative ...

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Jennifer Vaughn

author, educator, and economist, was born to Everett Loury and Gloria Cartman (Roosely) Loury and grew up in Park Manor on the South Side of Chicago. Loury attended Northwestern University in Evanston, Illinois, graduating with a BA in Mathematics in 1972. He then continued his education as a graduate student in economics at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT).

Working at MIT under the guidance of the future Nobel laureate Robert M. Solow, Loury began to formulate a theory of “social capital,” the idea that family and community characteristics can influence wages regardless of individual ability. This was Loury's explanation for how “equal opportunity” might not guarantee “equal outcome,” an important part of the debate surrounding affirmative action. As long as social context was ignored, disparities in incomes between blacks and whites would not be eliminated. In 1976 Loury submitted his dissertation Essays in ...

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Elsie A. Okobi

Nigerian economist and educator, was born on 6 February 1924 in Ojoto, Anambra State, Nigeria. His full name was Pius Nwabufo Charles Okigbo. The son of James Okoye Okigbo, a teacher, and Ana Onu Okigbo, his younger brother was the noted poet Christopher Okigbo. Pius was educated at St. Odilia Catholic School in Ojoto and went to Christ the King College, Onitsha, for his secondary education. He continued his secondary education at Yaba College in Yaba, Lagos, later transferring to Achimota College in Accra, Ghana, during World War II. Although his mentors in the Catholic Church had hoped that Pius would join the priesthood, when he returned to Nigeria he chose to teach at a private rather than at a Catholic school. Erudite and passionate in his beliefs, he also worked as a journalist for the Spokesman, a newspaper run by future Nigerian president Nnamdi Azikiwe and was at ...

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Ebenezer Ayesu

chief (traditional ruler), economist, business leader, university administrator, and philanthropist, was born Emmanuel Noi Omaboe on 29 October 1930 in Amanokrom, Akuapem in the eastern region of Ghana. His parents were Madam Mary Opibea Awuku of the royal Asona family of Amanokrom and Mr. Peter Nortey Omaboe, a prominent goldsmith resident at Mamfe and a citizen of Osu. He was enrolled in Mamfe Presbyterian Junior School from 1936 to 1942, completed his primary education at the Suhum Presbyterian Senior School in 1945, and from 1946 to 1950 studied at Accra Academy. There, he was a peer of several students who would be future leaders of Ghana, including Peter Ala Adjetey, who went on to a career as a noted lawyer and speaker of Ghana’s parliament (2000–2004). In 1951 he entered the University College of the Gold Coast now the University of Ghana to study economics ...

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Cajetan N. Iheka

Nigerian economist, business consultant, and politician, was born in Isuofia, Aguata Local Government Area of present-day Anambra state, Nigeria, on 28 July 1960. Soludo was born to Pa Simeon Nwankwo Soludo and Mgbafor Soludo. Mgbafor, Soludo’s mother, died in 1968, when he was eight years old. At the time Soludo was born, Nigeria was preparing for independence, which Britain granted on 1 October 1960. Anambra state, where Soludo was born, was part of the defunct Eastern region at that time. It was to become part of the East-Central state until the politics of state creation in Nigeria named it Anambra, and it is one of the states that constitute Nigeria’s South-East geopolitical region today.

After his secondary education which he passed with a distinction grade Soludo secured admission into the prestigious University of Nigeria Nsukka in the present day Enugu state to study economics Here too Soludo ...

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Gary Kerley

conservative economist, political writer, and educator, was born in Gastonia, North Carolina, to Willie (maiden name unknown), a domestic, and Henry Sowell, who died before his son's birth. Because they already had four other children, Thomas's parents, even before he was born, asked for help in rearing the baby. Henry turned to his aunt, Molly Sowell, who was sixty; she and her husband named the baby Thomas Hancock Sowell, nicknamed “Buddy,” and raised him as their own. Willie Sowell died a few years later in childbirth and Sowell did not know until he was an adult that his aunt and uncle were not his real parents He was a fourth grader when in the 1930s the family moved to Harlem New York where Sowell grew up and attended the prestigious Stuyvesant High School He dropped out in the tenth grade to go to ...

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Larvester Gaither

economist. Born in the town of Gastonia in segregated North Carolina, Thomas Sowell grew up in Harlem, New York. Due to difficult circumstances, he dropped out of high school and worked toward achieving his equivalency diploma by attending night school. He later joined the U.S. Marine Corps, where he developed a passion for photography. After passing Howard University's entrance exam, he studied there for a year and a half, then transferred to Harvard University to study economics. Sowell graduated magna cum laude from Harvard in 1958, received a master's degree in economics at Columbia University in 1959, and completed his doctorate in economics at the University of Chicago in 1968.

Since the late 1960s he has taught economics at several universities including Howard University the University of California at Los Angeles Cornell University and Amherst College His most prestigious post however has been as the Rose ...

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Bill Dickens

economist, educator, businessman, and diplomat, was born Clifton Reginald Wharton Jr. in Boston, Massachusetts, one of four children of Clifton Reginald Wharton, an ambassador, and Harriette B., a social worker in Boston and a French and Latin teacher at Virginia State University. His father was the first African American to pass the Foreign Service examination and became the first black career ambassador.

Wharton attended the prestigious Boston Latin School and graduated in 1943. The precocious Wharton enrolled at Harvard University at age sixteen. At the age of nineteen he served as an army aviation cadet and was stationed in Tuskegee, Alabama. However, with five weeks remaining to earn his aviator wings, he decided to return to Harvard to complete his undergraduate degree. He earned his AB in History in 1947 Wharton was the first African American to enroll in the Johns Hopkins School ...

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Jennifer Vaughn

author, educator, and economist, was born Walter Edward Williams in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. His father and namesake was a latherer, someone who prepared foundations for the plasterer during the construction of plaster houses; he divorced Williams's mother, Catherine (Morgan) Williams, when Williams was a young child. Williams's mother was left to raise him and his younger sister alone in the Richard Allen housing projects, a predominantly low-income black neighborhood in North Philadelphia, until her marriage later to Thomas Burchett.

In his teens Williams held a number of low-wage jobs to help support his family while attending Benjamin Franklin High School from 1950 to 1954. Despite being economically one of the lowest-ranking schools in Pennsylvania, Benjamin Franklin provided Williams with a solid learning experience including no nonsense teachers and a first class curriculum Being black was not an excuse to do poorly in school Williams had ...