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Dominique Achille

was born to Marguerite Raymonne Ferdinand and Philéas Gustave Louis Achille on 31 August 1909 in Fort-de-France, Martinique, then a French colony. His father was the first man of color who passed “agrégation” (the highest teaching diploma in France) in the English language in 1905. Achille’s family history can be traced back to slaves who were freed in 1794. He spent his childhood and teenage years in Martinique, in an upper-middle-class family.

In 1926 he began studying English at Louis-le-Grand High School and at the Sorbonne in Paris, where Georges Pompidou and Léopold Sedar Senghor were among his peers. In the 1930s he contributed to La Revue du Monde Noir The Review of the Black World issued in Paris by his cousins Paulette and Jane Nardal This publication addressed cultural links between colored writers poets and thinkers through the world because at that time no specific review ...

Article

Ondra Krouse Dismukes

writer, editor, and scholar, was born in New York City to Dorothy L. Babb and Lionel S. Duncan, both of whom were immigrants from the Republic of Panama. Her parents were part of the larger West Indian community, the “diggers” as many were called, who built the Panama Canal. Babb shared a close relationship with her mother, who instilled in her the value of an education.

Babb attended the Bronx High School of Science, a high school specializing in math and sciences and with some of the best English teachers, whose influence Babb credits for choosing this profession. After graduating from high school in 1973, she enrolled in Queens College of the City University of New York. She graduated with honors in 1977 earning a bachelor s degree in English with a minor concentration in Romance Languages Babb went on to attend graduate school ...

Article

Florence M. Coleman

educator, literary scholar, and biographer of the English novelist Daniel Defoe, was one of five sons born to Helena Burch in Saint George's, Bermuda. Nothing is known of his father. Charles Burch was educated in the elementary and secondary schools of Bermuda. Burch met and married Willa Carter Mayer, who at one time served as a professor of education at Miner Teacher's College in Washington, D.C. She also served as a supervisory official of the public schools of the District of Columbia and authored Clinical Practices in Public School Education (1944). Whether or not they had children is not known.

Burch attended Wilberforce University in Wilberforce, Ohio, from which he was awarded a BA in 1914. Four years later, he earned a MA from Columbia University. Fifteen years later in 1933 he was awarded a PhD in English from Ohio State University He taught ...

Article

Charlotte Crawford Watkins

Charles Eaton Burch was born on July 14, 1891, in Bermuda. His early education was in the elementary and secondary schools of Bermuda, and his advanced training was in the United States, at Wilberforce University (B.A., 1914), Columbia University (M.A., 1918), and Ohio State University (Ph.D., 1933). He taught in the academic department of Tuskegee Institute in 1916 and 1917, and from 1918 to 1921 he taught at Wilberforce as an instructor in English. In 1921 he was appointed to the faculty of Howard University, where he served, successively, as assistant professor (1921–1924), associate professor (1924–1936), and professor of English, and as acting head and (from 1933) head of the Department of English until his death on March 23, 1948 In addition to his work as a scholar Burch made two major contributions to Howard University In ...

Article

Brenna Sanchez

Englishprofessor, civil rights activist, and scholar of African American literature, was born Mary Fair and raised in Montgomery, Alabama. Little information is available about her family. Burks bucked the Jim Crow system of segregation even as a child in the 1930s, using whites-only elevators, restrooms, and other facilities in what she later called “my own private guerilla warfare” (Bolden, 241). At age eighteen she earned a bachelor's degree in English Literature from Alabama State College, and a year later earned her master's degree from the University of Michigan. She returned to Montgomery to teach English at the Alabama State Laboratory High School and, later, at Alabama State College. Burks married the principal of Alabama State Laboratory High School, Nathaniel Burks. The couple would have one son, Nathaniel W. Burks Jr.

She became head of the Alabama State College English department and later earned her doctorate from Columbia ...

Article

was born on 12 August 1945, into a large family in Chocó, a department located on Colombia’s Pacific coast. Carlos inherited his passion for writing and literature from his father, Pedro Adán Caicedo, a well-known judge in Quibdó (the capital of Chocó). From childhood, his mother, María Licona Benítez, instilled in him a great sense of belonging and identification with his region. Among his many virtues and talents, Caicedo is best known as an outstanding writer whose emblematic works are a national treasure, telling the story of an interesting and unique culture.

Caicedo began his academic training at the Escuela Normal Superior de Quibdó, where he completed his elementary studies. He graduated from the Normal Guillermo León Valencia high school in Montería (in the department of Córdoba) in 1965 Later he enrolled in the Universidad Libre de Colombia Free University of Colombia where he successfully completed his bachelor ...

Article

Duane W. Roller

was a major poet and scholar of the third century BCE. He was born at the end of the previous century in Kyrene (also Cyrene), the important Greek city on the coast of Africa west of Egypt in present-day Libya. He was of distinguished background: his homonymous grandfather was a member of the ruling elite of the city. The younger Callimachus immigrated to Alexandria in Egypt at an early age and became an intimate at the court of Ptolemaios II (who came to the throne in early 282 BCE). Callimachus was part of the developing intellectual presence around the Ptolemies, which at that time included the mathematician Euclid and the poets Theokritos and Apollonios of Rhodes. He was especially close to the queen, Arsinoë II, and wrote her eulogy.

When Arsinoë died around 270 BCE Callimachus may have fallen out of favor since little is known about him for ...

Article

Peter D. Fraser

was born on 26 January 1903 in New Amsterdam, British Guiana, the son of George Johnson Cameron (a druggist) and Sylvia Elizabeth Cameron (née Beete). The family lived in several places but eventually settled in Georgetown, where Cameron attended Christ Church Primary School, winning a scholarship to attend the leading secondary school, Queen’s College. In 1921 he won the prestigious Guiana Scholarship and departed in 1922 to study mathematics at Cambridge University, graduating in 1925.

Cameron had wanted to teach in Liberia but, unable to do so, returned to British Guiana. He established his own school, The Guianese Academy, in 1926 and that same year married Lurline Daly (they adopted a daughter, Joan, in 1941). He became an assistant master at Queen’s College in 1934, eventually being named deputy principal in 1958; in 1963 he joined the newly established University of Guyana which on his ...

Article

Roxanna Nydia Curto

was born Suzanne Roussi on 11 August 1915, in Poterie aux Trois-Îlets, Martinique. Her mother was Flore Roussi (née William); her father, Benoît Roussi, was a sugar factory worker.

In 1934 Roussi left Martinique to pursue her studies in literature, first in Toulouse, and then in Paris at the École Normale Supérieure, where she met her future husband and fellow Martinican, Aimé Césaire, in 1936. Legend has it that Roussi, known for her beauty and brilliance, was actively pursued by the three founders of the Negritude movement—Aimé Césaire, Léon Damas of French Guiana, and Léopold Sédar Senghor of Senegal—while they all worked together on the journal L’Étudiant noir. She chose Césaire, and they married on 10 July 1937 and eventually had six children (four sons and two daughters).

In 1938 after finishing her studies she returned to Martinique to teach at the Victor Schoelcher high school ...

Article

Ernest Cole

Sierra Leonean journalist, poet, and literary scholar, was born in Freetown, Sierra Leone. He studied at the universities of Oregon and Wisconsin before returning to Sierra Leone where he worked as a journalist. He taught at the universities of Maiduguri in Nigeria and the University of the Philippines but later returned to Sierra Leone and continued his work as a journalist and editor of the radical newspaper The Vanguard. Cheney-Coker has published three books of poetry: Concerto for an Exile in 1973, The Graveyard Also Has Teeth in 1980, and The Blood in the Desert’s Eyes in 1990. He also published a novel, The Last Harmattan of Alusine Dunbar, in 1990 which won the African Commonwealth Writer’s Prize in 1991.

The poetry of Syl Cheney Coker falls within the period of modern writing in Sierra Leone The influence of modern poets like W B Yeats ...

Article

Adebe DeRango-Adem

was born Barbara Theresa Christian in St. Thomas, Virgin Islands, one of six children of Alphonso Christian, a judge, and Ruth (maiden name unknown).

Christian was admitted to Marquette University in Wisconsin at the age of fifteen, graduating cum laude with a B.A. in 1963. She chose to continue studying literature at Columbia University in New York City, in part because of its proximity to Harlem and resonance with the legacy of the Harlem Renaissance writers, who were still largely foreign to the American literary canon during her term of study. Harlem was also a fertile center for political activism in the 1960s civil rights era and central to the creation of a new black intellectual elite whose activities centered around the bookstore run by Lewis Micheaux, brother of black filmmaker Oscar Micheaux. Christian was also said to have met Langston Hughes personal secretary in ...

Article

Daly Guilamo

was born in Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic, on 25 February 1949. De Filippis’s grandmother, whom she refers to as Mama Beila and whose real name is Gabriela Menendez Henriquez, was a schoolteacher and avid book reader. She inspired her granddaughter to study Dominican poetry, which she began memorizing at the age of 7. Her exploration of Dominican poetry, beginning in her childhood, has been a lifelong endeavor, allowing her to cultivate her identity as a woman and a scholar. Such childhood activities later influenced De Filippis in her choice of discipline and eventual profession. De Filippis was bilingual by the age of 9, fluent in both Italian and Spanish. Her parents divorced when she was 4 years old.

In 1962 De Filippis left her homeland to settle with her parents in New York City, where she eventually graduated from high school. At the city’s Queens College, in 1975 ...

Article

Linda Watts

was born Maryse Boucolon on 11 February 1937, the youngest of eight children born to a middle-class couple in Pointe-à-Pitre, Guadeloupe. Her father, Auguste Boucolon, worked as a civil servant. Her mother, Jeanne Quidal Boucolon, was an elementary school teacher. As a youth, Condé was bright, inquisitive, and a bit unruly. Despite household prohibitions, she explored her father’s personal library, where she developed an appetite for reading.

According to Condé, she became a writer at about the age of 7. Her debut came with a sketch she wrote depicting her mother’s strong role within the family. When her mother read her daughter’s portrayal, she cried. At that moment, the novice author discovered that even a child could use language to convey compelling truths to an audience. Years later, in her 2010 article How to Become a So Called Caribbean Woman Writer A User s Manual Condé recounted how ...

Article

Tiffany Adams

folklorist, writer, and educator, was born Daryl Cumber in Richmond, Virginia, the only child of Allen Whitfield Cumber, a proprietor of a restaurant and tavern, and Veronica Bell, a teacher. Raised in Charles City, Virginia, she earned her B.A. degree in English in 1957 from Virginia State College (now known as Virginia State University), a historically black institution located just outside of Richmond in Petersburg, Virginia. In 1958 she married Warren Dance and had three children, two sons and one daughter. She continued to pursue her English studies at Virginia State College and earned her M.A. in English there in 1963.

Dance taught at both Virginia Union and Armstrong High School of Richmond before earning her Ph.D. in English in 1971 at the University of Virginia which was by then an integrated institution Although Dance and her family had deep roots in Virginia ...

Article

Dorsia Smith Silva

educator and writer, was born in Hampton, Virginia and raised in a middle-class family. After receiving his bachelor's degree in American literature from Dartmouth College in 1939, Davis attended the University of Chicago and became a great enthusiast of the Harlem Renaissance. His master's thesis on the Harlem Renaissance was acclaimed by his professors and marked the beginning of his reputation as a dedicated scholar. Davis graduated with a master's degree in American Studies in 1942 and then entered the army to serve his country in World War II. While he steadily rose to the rank of a captain, he decided to return to academia as an instructor in American Civilizations and doctoral student in American literature at New York University in 1948 Being in a new academic setting inspired Davis to pursue a variety of literary interests such as the historical and cultural influences of poetry ...

Article

R. Baxter Miller

scholar and educator, was born in Washington, D.C., the daughter of James Stanley Dykes and Martha Ann Howard. Eva graduated from M Street High (later Paul Laurence Dunbar High School) in 1910. As valedictorian of her class, she won a $10 scholarship from Alpha Kappa Alpha Sorority to attend Howard University, where in 1914 she graduated summa cum laude with a BA in English. After a year of teaching Latin and English at the now defunct Walden University in Nashville, Tennessee, and for another year elsewhere, she was urged by James Howard, a physician and uncle on her mother's side, to enter Radcliffe College in 1916. Subsequently, she earned a second BA in English, magna cum laude, in 1917. Elected Phi Beta Kappa, she received an MA in English in 1918 and a PhD in English philology in 1921 Her dissertation was titled ...

Article

Marie Umeh

Nigerian poet, literary critic, scholar, biographer, performer, and journalist, was born on 31 March 1958 to Michael Ogbonnaya Ohaeto and Rebecca Nwego Ohaeto in Ife Ezinihitte, Mbaise Local Government Area of Imo state. According to Ernest Emenyonu, Ezenwa-Ohaeto’s hyphenated name means “child king” or “child destined to be king.”

His primary education began in 1971 at St. Augustine Grammar School in Nkwere. He completed his secondary school education, earning a Grade One Certificate, with distinction in the arts and sciences, in 1975. When he was growing up, he published poems in the school magazine, HIPO, and short stories in the local newspaper, The Daily Star. From 1971 to 1979 he attended the University of Nigeria Nsukka UNN where he majored in English and studied under the renowned novelist Chinua Achebe and the famous critic Donatus Nwoga He graduated with a BA with honors in English This achievement ...

Article

Richard Newman

William Plummer French was born February 19, 1943 in Great Barrington, Massachusetts, the son of Frank J. French, vice-president of Allied Chemical Co. and Bettina Plummer French. He worked at University Place Book Shop in New York, owned by Walter Goldwater, and became fascinated with African American books and literature, a field the shop specialized in to serve two major collectors, Arthur Schomburg and Arthur Spingarn.

Self-taught by the books in the store, French became probably the country's most knowledgeable expert on African American books and bibliography. He compiled two biographical pamphlets on black poetry, and in 1979 co-edited Afro-American Poetry and Drama, 1760–1975. Pre-deceased by his wife, the painter Garland Eliason, French died in New York of a stroke on January 14, 1997 survived by his son Will A book collecting prize at the Department of Afro American Studies at ...

Article

Reinhard Klein-Arendt

From the beginning of his career, Leo Viktor Frobenius (1873–1938), one of Germany’s most reknowned ethnologists and ethnographists, was an autodidact: there is no information that he ever studied, and he never held an academic degree such as an MA or PhD; he even did not graduate from high school and had no university entrance qualification. However, he submitted a doctoral thesis about secret societies in Africa to the University of Frankfurt—the thesis was rejected [the year not known—not in the records of the University]. Between 1904 and 1935, he was the leader of several large-scale expeditions to various regions in Africa and wrote abundantly as a freelance writer about his findings. In his books and articles, he coined a number of theories about the cultural history of Africa, some of them gaining much influence beyond German ethnology. In 1932 he became an honorary professor at ...

Article

Eugenio Fantusati

Roman writer and prefect in Egypt, was born in Fréjus, in present-day France, in 69 BCE. Before devoting himself to a political career, he showed significant literary talent. He belonged to the neoteric school— a poetic society inspired by the Alexandrine traditions—of Valerius Cato and Catullus and composed four books of elegies, now almost entirely lost, entitled Amores, in which he mourned over his unlucky love for the young girl Lycoris.

A personal friend of Augustus and Virgil Gallus received his first political appointment at the age of thirty eight when immediately after the Battle of Actium he was named to the position of praefectum fabrum supervisor of the corps of engineers in Cyrenaica There with the cooperation of Pinarius Scarpa the commander of Antony s forces in Libya he had ensured the obedience of the rebellious countries thereby depriving Antony of the possibility of mounting a defense in ...