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Allen J. Fromherz

Egyptian author and historian, was born in Cairo. A famed historian and writer of the Futuh Misr, or the Conquest of Egypt the oldest preserved work on the subject Abu al Qasim ʿAbd al Rahman bin ʿAbd Allah Ibn ʿAbd al Hakam is also known for his description of the Muslim conquest of North Africa and Iberia Abu al Qasim was a member of a prominent Egyptian family of legal scholars His father ʿAbd Allah wrote a refutation of al Shafiʿi the famed founder of the Shafiʿi school of Islamic law and was brought to Baghdad to swear to the createdness of the Qurʾan He refused and was sent back to Egypt by the caliph al Maʾmun Indeed despite their wealth and initial prominence the ʿAbd al Hakam family was often persecuted for standing up for their principles especially for the preservation of traditional Maliki law an early ...

Article

jurist, historian, and litterateur, was born in the city of Sabta (present-day Ceuta) to an Arab family with origins in the Yemen. ‘Iyad's training in the various branches of Islamic learning was remarkably thorough. He undertook his early education in Sabta at the hand of several scholars, including the jurist ‘Abd Allah ibn ‘Isa and the faqih ‘Ali Abu Ishaq al-Fasi. He then traveled to al-Andalus, and there exists notice that he studied there with no fewer than a hundred scholars, among them several leading figures of the age, including the traditionist Abu ‘Ali al-Sadafi of Murcia (d. 1120/21), the jurist Abu al-Walid ibn Rushd of Cordoba (d. 1126), and the religious scholar and jurist Abu Bakr ibn al-‘Arabi of Seville (d. 1148).

Unlike many of his fellow North Africans it appears that Iyad never made the journey to ...

Article

Sumaiya Hamdani

North African judge and author, was born sometime around the turn of the tenth century CE (or early 900s), into a North African Sunni family residing in what is today Tunisia, and yet he rose to become the preeminent author and legal authority for a Shia dynasty that established itself in North Africa in 909 and eventually ruled an empire that included Egypt, Syria, and Arabia until 1171. His full name was Al-Qadi (or judge) Abu Hanifa al-Nuʿman (first name) b. (son of) Muhammad b. Mansur b. Ahmad b. Hayyun al-Tamimi (tribal name).

Although al-Nuʿman was prolific and prominent, extremely little is known of his family and life before he joined the service of this Shiite dynasty, the Fatimids, in 925. A North African biographical dictionary from a slightly later period notes that his father Muhammad was among the few Sunni Muslim ulama or religious scholars of North ...

Article

Russell Hopley

jurist, was born in the Tunisian city of al-Qayrawan to a family originally from the region of Qabis (modern- day Gabès). His full name was Abu ʾl-Hasan ʿAli b. Muhammad b. Khalaf al-Maʿrifi al-Qabisi.

A close companion and cousin of Ibn Abi Zayd al-Qayrawani (d. 996), al-Qabisi received his early education at the hand of several Maliki scholars from al-Qayrawan, including Abu ʾl-Abbas al-Ibyani (d. 971), Ibn Masrur al-Dabbagh (d. 969), and Darras al-Fasi (d. 967). Of these, it was perhaps Ibn Masrur who played the greatest role in al-Qabisi’s intellectual formation. Ibn Masrur was himself a disciple of the eminent Maliki jurist Abu Said al-Tanukhi Sahnun, and he thus represents an important link in the transmission of orthodox Malikism between its early forebears in al-Qayrawan and its subsequent articulation by figures such as Ibn Abi Zayd and al-Qabisi.

Al Qabisi undertook the journey to the cultural and intellectual capitals ...

Article

Russell Hopley

North African jurist, was born Shihab al-Din Abu al-ʿAbbas Ahmad b. Idris b. ʿAbd al-Rahman b. Yallin in the Deir al-Tin quarter of Cairo to a family with origins among the Sanhaja Berbers of North Africa. He received the sobriquet “al-Qarafi” as a young boy because he was often seen approaching his primary school from the direction of the Qarafah neighborhood in old Cairo.

Widely regarded as one of the great theoreticians of the Maliki school of Islamic jurisprudence, al-Qarafi appears to have studied with only a small number of scholars. Among these were Shams al-Din b. ʿAli b. Surur (d. 1277), an expert in hadith who came to Egypt from Jerusalem. Al-Qarafi’s training in the various branches of Islamic law came at the hand of al-Sharif al-Karaki (d. 1290 or 1291 a Moroccan who is said to have mastered both the Maliki and Shafiʿi schools of jurisprudence ...

Article

Russell Hopley

777 855 jurist and religious scholar was born in al Qayrawan in southern Tunisia to an Arab family that originated in Syria His full name was Abu Saʿid ʿAbd al Salam ibn Saʿid ibn Habib ibn Hassan ibn Hilal ibn Bakkar ibn Rabiʿa al Tanukhi He received the nickname Sahnun while a young boy apparently in reference to a certain type of bird known for its cleverness His father most probably emigrated to North Africa in the mid eighth century as a soldier in the Muslim army that brought Ifriqiya the region encompassed by present day Tunisia and northwestern Libya under the control of the ʿAbbasid caliphate of Baghdad In return for his military service he was granted a small tract of land to live on and cultivate in the Sahel region of Tunisia and it was to this agrarian lifestyle that Sahnun would remain attached throughout his life ...

Article

Stephen Cory

Moroccan Maliki legal scholar, was born and lived in Fez, where he became a noted expert in the study of hadith and qurʾanic exegesis until he was exiled to Marrakesh toward the end of his life. He is also known as Abu al-Hasan ʿAli ibn Hirzihim. He is best remembered as a vocal critic of the Almoravid regime in Morocco and a proponent of the teachings of the noted scholar, Abu Hamid al-Ghazali, whose works the Almoravids had banned. Ibn Hirzihim was also influential in the early scholarly career of Abu Madyan, who would become one of the most famous Sufi saints in North Africa during the late medieval period. Better known as Sidi Harazem, Ibn Hirzihim is the patron saint of a spring located near Fez and, as such, his name is used to market drinking water in Morocco to this day.

ʿAli Ibn Hirzihim was born into a ...

Article

jurist, was born Abu Bakr Muhammad ibn al-Walid ibn Khalaf ibn Sulayman Ayyub al-Qurashi al-Fihri al-Turtushi in the Spanish Andalusian city of Tortosa. Turtushi, frequently referred to as Ibn Abi Randaqa, completed his early education in Saragossa as a pupil of the prominent theologian Abu al-Walid al-Baji (d. 1081), under whose tutelage he was introduced to the various branches of the Islamic sciences. After obtaining his ijaza from al-Baji, Turtushi traveled to Seville, where he attended lectures given by the polymath religious scholar Abu Muh.ammad Ibn H..azm (d. 1064).

In 1084 Turtushi departed Al-Andalus, Spain, and made the voyage east, both to undertake the pilgrimage to Mecca and to complete his formal training with scholars in the great cultural centers of the Islamic east, including Basra, Damascus, and Baghdad. In the latter city he was able to study fiqh and h.adith with the Shafʿi scholar Abu Bakr al Shashi ...

Article

David S. Powers

Maliki scholar, jurist, and mufti, was born in Jabal Wansharis (Ouarsenis), a mountain massif in the Central Algerian Tell, 31 miles (50 kilometers) southwest of Algiers. When Ahmad was five years old, his father moved the family to Tlemcen, where he studied the Qurʾan, Arabic language, and Maliki law and jurisprudence with distinguished scholars.

In 1469 at the age of forty al Wansharisi incurred the wrath of the Zayyanid sultan Muhammad IV who ordered that his house be ransacked and plundered Leaving everything behind al Wansharisi fled to Fez where he was welcomed by the scholarly community receiving food and shelter from the jurist Muhammad al Sughayyir He moved into a house near the Muʿallaq mosque in the Sharratin quarter of Fez al Qarawiyyin and was appointed professor of Maliki law at the Madrasa Misbahiyya His knowledge of the law was proverbial He who has not studied with al ...