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Allen J. Fromherz

Egyptian author and historian, was born in Cairo. A famed historian and writer of the Futuh Misr, or the Conquest of Egypt the oldest preserved work on the subject Abu al Qasim ʿAbd al Rahman bin ʿAbd Allah Ibn ʿAbd al Hakam is also known for his description of the Muslim conquest of North Africa and Iberia Abu al Qasim was a member of a prominent Egyptian family of legal scholars His father ʿAbd Allah wrote a refutation of al Shafiʿi the famed founder of the Shafiʿi school of Islamic law and was brought to Baghdad to swear to the createdness of the Qurʾan He refused and was sent back to Egypt by the caliph al Maʾmun Indeed despite their wealth and initial prominence the ʿAbd al Hakam family was often persecuted for standing up for their principles especially for the preservation of traditional Maliki law an early ...

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Russell Hopley

Tunisian historian, was born in the city of al-Qayrawan to a father trained as a scholar of Islamic law and hadith. His full name was Abu Bakr ʿAbd Allah bin Muhammad al-Maliki. Al-Maliki’s father was a historian in his own right, and he is known to have authored a hagiography of the renowned Tunisian jurist Abu al-Hasan al-Qabisi (d. 1012). Al-Maliki received his early education in al-Qayrawan under several influential figures, including Abu Bakr ibn ʿAbd al-Rahman (d. 1040 or 1043) and Muhammad bin ʿAbbas al-Ansari (d. 1036). He also appears to have spent a brief period in Sicily studying with several scholars there.

Upon his return to al Qayrawan al Maliki embarked on a career teaching the various branches of the Islamic sciences Among his pupils was the important jurist Abu ʿAbd Allah al Mazari d 1141 who cites al Maliki affectionately in one of his extant legal opinions ...

Article

Allen J. Fromherz

Egyptian historian, was born in Cairo possibly around the year 1409 three years after the death of his distinguished predecessor Ibn Khaldun He was the son of a Mamluk The Mamluk system relied on the recruitment of fresh slave soldiers and usually excluded the sons of Mamluks Although his father became chief of the Egyptian armies under Sultan al Faraj and governor of Damascus Abu Mahasin Taghribirdi did not have the same opportunity to rise to the same levels in government as his father Although he was welcomed into the Mamluk court and even provided with a fief to maintain his income he concentrated as much on his writing and study as on the maintenance or expansion of his political powers He took an active part in the campaigns of Sultan Barsbay who patronized the work of the historian al ʿAyni It was customary at the time for histories ...

Article

Kurt J. Werthmuller

Egyptian Christian author, was a patron of Copto-Arabic historical literature, long presumed to be the author of Churches and Monasteries of Egypt and Some Neighboring Countries, a twelfth-century topographical survey of Christian sites and traditions in and around Egypt. The original author of the majority of that work was, in fact, Abu al-Makarim Saʿdallah Ibn Jirjis Ibn Masʿud, an elder of the Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria. Despite confusion regarding its authorship, Churches and Monasteries has proven to be a crucial text for the study of Coptic tradition, Christian-Muslim relations, and the twelfth-century Egyptian state and society in general and was in turn an important source to later medieval chroniclers and topographers.

Although little is actually known about the specifics of the life of Abu Salih his patronage of this important piece of medieval Egyptian historical literature suggests that he was of a well to do socioeconomic class and ...

Article

Dominique Achille

was born to Marguerite Raymonne Ferdinand and Philéas Gustave Louis Achille on 31 August 1909 in Fort-de-France, Martinique, then a French colony. His father was the first man of color who passed “agrégation” (the highest teaching diploma in France) in the English language in 1905. Achille’s family history can be traced back to slaves who were freed in 1794. He spent his childhood and teenage years in Martinique, in an upper-middle-class family.

In 1926 he began studying English at Louis-le-Grand High School and at the Sorbonne in Paris, where Georges Pompidou and Léopold Sedar Senghor were among his peers. In the 1930s he contributed to La Revue du Monde Noir The Review of the Black World issued in Paris by his cousins Paulette and Jane Nardal This publication addressed cultural links between colored writers poets and thinkers through the world because at that time no specific review ...

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Nigerian writer, also known as Catherine Obianuju Acholonu-Olumba, was born on 26 October 1951 in Orlu of Igbo parentage. The daughter of Chief Lazarus Emejuru Olumba and Josephine Olumba of Umuokwara Village in the town of Orlu in Imo State, southeastern Nigeria, she obtained her early education at local primary and secondary schools in Orlu. At age seventeen, in an arranged marriage, she became the wife of Douglas Acholonu, a surgeon then living in Germany, by whom she had four children: Ifunanya, Nneka, Chidozie, and Kelechi. In 1974 she registered as a student of English and American language and literature and Germanic linguistics at the University of Dusseldorf and earned a master’s degree in her chosen field in 1977.

Upon returning to Nigeria in 1980, she accepted a teaching appointment at Alvan Ikoku College of Education in Owerri. While teaching, Acholonu was also writing her PhD dissertation. In 1982 ...

Article

Adeyemi Bukola Oyeniyi

pioneering historian of Africa, was born on 26 May 1929 in Ikole-Ekiti, southwestern Nigeria. He had his early education at Saint Paul’s School, Ikole-Ekiti and Ekiti Central School, where he later taught as a pupil teacher. He proceeded to Igbobi College, Lagos, and later to University College, Ibadan (now the University of Ibadan), as a foundation student in 1948. In 1951 Ade Ajayi obtained his BA Honors degree in general history, Latin, and English. In 1952 he took another BA Honors degree in history at Leicester University, in England, which he completed in 1955 with first class honors. In 1958 Ade Ajayi completed his doctorate degree at the University of London where he was one of the first African doctoral students of the eminent historian of Africa Roland Oliver He then returned to Nigeria to join the history department at the University of Ibadan as a lecturer grade ...

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Adeyemi Bukola Oyeniyi

Nigerian scholar, professor of African history at the University of Nigeria, Nsukka, was born on 22 November 1937 in Ihube, Okigwe, in present-day Imo State, southeastern Nigeria. He had his early education at Methodist Central School, Ihube, Okigwe, between 1944 and 1950 and won the Okigwe Native Administration scholarship, which enabled him to attend St. Augustine’s Grammar School, Nkwerre Orlu, in Imo State between 1951 and 1956 With a scholarship from the government of Eastern Nigeria he proceeded to the University College Ibadan now University of Ibadan Ibadan to study history Afigbo graduated at the top of his class and therefore won the University of Ibadan postgraduate scholarships which enabled him to study and complete his doctorate degree also a first among his colleagues among whom were Obaro Ikime and Philip Igbafe Afigbo thus became the first person to receive a doctoral degree in history from a Nigerian university ...

Article

Stanley M. Burstein

grammarian, historian, and the author of the most important surviving accounts of ancient northeast Africa and the Red Sea basin. Unfortunately, little is known of the details of his biography. The only sources for his life are a few autobiographical remarks in the fragments of his works and a notice in Codex 213 of the Bibliotheca of Photius the ninth century CE scholar and patriarch of Constantinople These references indicate that Agatharchides was born probably about 200 BCE in the city of Cnidus on the west coast of modern Turkey and that his origins were comparatively humble Probably in the early second century BCE he immigrated to Egypt where he came to the attention of an official and adviser of Ptolemy VI r 180 145 BCE named Cineas who made Agatharchides his protégé It was probably Cineas who also introduced him to another Ptolemaic official the historian and diplomat ...

Article

Gonzalo Aguirre Beltrán was born and received his primary and secondary schooling in Veracruz, where there was a strong African influence, before studying medicine in Mexico City. In the 1920s and 1930s intellectuals such as José Vasconcelos undertook pioneering studies of Indians in Mexico, whose culture and history had largely been viewed with disdain until then. The studies resurrected a degree of interest in and dignity for Indian heritage. Although Vasconcelos argued that much of indigenous culture should be subsumed in a larger Mexican culture, Aguirre Beltrán believed that indigenous cultures were worthy of study for their own sake. After graduating from the University of Mexico with a medical degree, Aguirre Beltrán returned to Veracruz, where he held a post in public health that further sparked his interest in Indian ethnicity and history. In 1940 he published two studies on the ethnohistory of colonial and precolonial Indians in ...

Article

Islamic scholar and historian from present-day Mauritania. His name is also spelled Sidi Ahmed ould al-Amin al-Shinqiti. The nisba (name extension indicating place of origin) al-Shinqiti does not refer to the town Chinguetti (Shinqit), but was given to him during his stay in the Arab world. All bidan (Moors) going abroad to the Arab world have the nisba al-Shiniqiti added to their names, no matter from which region or town of the so-called Bilad Shinqit (“The lands of Chinguetti”; present-day Mauritania, Western Sahara, and the Azawad region in northern Mali) they come from. In the Arab world they are generally called shanaqita and their country is known as Bilad Shinqit, even if locally different names were circulating in precolonial times.

Ahmad was born around 1863 64 in the Gibla region of what is today southwestern Mauritania Trarza and belonged to a scholarly family He was from one of the Idaw ...

Article

Jeremy Rich

Beninese political leader and historian, was born sometime in the late nineteenth century into a powerful Wegbaja family. His family claimed descent from Glele, the powerful ruler of the Dahomey Kingdom in the late nineteenth century.

Despite his important role in colonial politics and anthropological research in Benin from the 1930s until the 1950s, little published work sheds light on his early background. Aho served in the French military as a young man and spoke and wrote fluently in French. He probably received his primary and secondary education in Benin. Aho’s entrance into politics came during the turbulent 1920s and early 1930s. Benin, known under French rule as the colony of Dahomey, became home to a small but very vocal movement of Western-educated African urban elites who called for improved legal and political rights for coastal Beninese elites. From the turn of the twentieth century to 1945 ...

Article

Mersha Alehegne

Ethiopian traditional scholar, was born to Memher Sertse Weld and Wolete Kiros in Wabet, a rural village in north Shewa. He began his schooling at his home under his father. He left Wabet for Wadla and later Lasta, where he studied chant (zema) and Geez poetry (qene). His most significant ecclesiastical scholarship studies took place in Gonder, where he was certified in the four departments of the traditional Amharic commentary of scripture and church literature, namely, Old Testament (at Beata Mariam Church), New Testament (at Atatami Mikael Church), the Books of Scholars (at Elfign Giorgis Church), and the Books of Monks (at Hamere Noah Selestu Me’et Church). Throughout his study period, he taught qene at Yohannes Welde Negodgwad Church in Gonder.

When Emperor Tewodros II held court in Debre Tabor it was customary that priests teachers and other higher dignitaries of the church in Gonder travel ...

Article

historian, was born and raised in al-Qayrawan in Tunisia. He undertook his education in the various fields of Islamic learning at the hand of no fewer than eighty scholars, among them the jurists Abu Zakaria al-Barqi and Ibn ‘Abd al-Jalil al-Azdi. Like numerous other North Africans, al-Dabbagh embarked on a journey to the cultural capitals of the Islamic east to complete his education, and there exists notice of his having been granted a license to teach by several eastern luminaries, including the religious scholars Abu al-Fadl al-Sa‘di and Abu al-Qasim ibn al-Hasib. Following his return to al-Qayrawan al-Dabbagh began writing the work for which he is best known, the Ma‘lim al-iman fi ma‘rifat ahl al-Qayrawan a lengthy prosopographical treatise containing biographical notices of 390 holy men religious scholars and jurists who inhabited the region of al Qayrawan from the period immediately following the death of the Prophet until ...

Article

Abdul Karim Bangura

Abu Nasr Muhammad ibn al-Farakh al-Farabi, or Muhammad ibn Muhammad ibn Tarkhan ibn Uzalagh al-Farabi, was born in 870 c.e in Kazakhstan or Persia or Afghanistan Also known in the West as Alpharabius he is considered by many to be the greatest philosopher scientist and musicologist of his era and perhaps one of the greatest Muslim philosophers in all of history As a political philosopher al Farabi sought out answers to many of the most difficult questions facing the Islamic world during his lifetime He questioned the relations between humankind and God the role of the intermediary the influence of the divine law in private life and the limitations of the human mind He went beyond the divine law and searched for humankind s place in the universe and our relationship with nature society and the divine law He inquired about the different types of political institutions ...

Article

was born on 28 July 1942 to Charles Albert and Rosa Batista on a batey (sugarcane worker community) in Guaymate, La Romana Province, Dominican Republic. Albert’s father was from St. Kitts and Nevis, while her mother was a Dominican from Santiago de los Caballeros who later moved to La Romana, where they met and married. Charles Albert was a member of the so-called cocolo community, a somewhat pejorative term for blacks from the English-speaking Caribbean who settled in the Dominican Republic.

Born, raised, and educated on a batey, where living conditions were often deplorable and educational opportunities were limited and often difficult to obtain, Albert overcame many challenges and completed her primary and secondary education. Upon the death of her father in 1958 she the eldest child had to work to help support her family while attending school Her first professional job was as an elementary school teacher ...

Article

Yvonne Maggie

was born Mário Raul de Morais Andrade in São Paulo on 9 October 1893 and died in the same city, at the age of 51, on 25 February 1945. His father Carlos Augusto de Andrade, held various jobs throughout his life, including stints as a typographer, a bookkeeper, clerk, bank manager, and merchant, while also showing a penchant for writing, as a journalist and a playwright, which gained him some notoriety in São Paulo. In 1879 he created the Folha da Tarde, São Paulo’s first evening newspaper. Mário’s mother, Maria Luísa de Almeida Leite Moraes de Andrade, came from an affluent family. His maternal grandfather, an important politician and professor of the renowned Faculdade de Direito de São Paulo (São Paulo Law School), served as president of Goiás Province in 1881.

Andrade did not inherit capital or gain wealth during his lifetime His only property was a ...

Article

Desha Osborne

was born on 10 February 1932 in Lagon Mahoe, Mayaro, in southeastern Trinidad to Nathaniel and Eva Anthony. In 1936 Anthony’s family moved to Post Office Hill, also in Mayaro. In 1942 Nathaniel died from heart disease, and a year later Anthony was sent to live and attend school in San Fernando, where he lived for one year. In 1944 he returned to San Fernando to study at the Junior Technical School. These early experiences with the declining health and eventual death of his father, and a year spent in San Fernando, would serve as the inspiration for various plot elements found in his first three novels. In 1946 he apprenticed at Trinidad Leaseholds Ltd., which later became part of Texaco Inc., where he trained as a molder, subsequently finding employment in an iron foundry at the Pointe-à-Pierre oil refinery. Starting in 1952 Anthony began submitting poetry to the ...

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Alain M. Gowing

historian, composed an invaluable Roman History in Greek while living and working in Rome under the emperors Hadrian (ruled 117–138 CE) and Antoninus Pius (ruled 138–161 CE). What scant biographical details we possess derive from a few remarks about himself in his work, especially in the History s Preface Appian also evidently published an autobiography that has not survived We catch a further fleeting glimpse of his personality through extant letters exchanged with his friend Fronto the Roman jurist and man of letters from Numidia modern Algeria and Tunisia in Africa who helped to advance the historian s career by intervening on his behalf with Antoninus Pius By Appian s own reckoning he was a man of some stature in his native Alexandria who in his late twenties or early thirties moved to Rome to pursue his career soon after Hadrian took power in 117 The precise nature of ...

Article

Robert N. Anderson

was born on 10 November 1954 in the town of Nanuque, Minas Gerais state, Brazil. It was there that, as an adolescent, he discovered world cinema in the city’s movie theaters and frequented his uncle’s theater company. He later moved to the state capital of Belo Horizonte, where he earned a bachelor’s degree in psychology and a master’s degree in sociology of education, all the while maintaining his connection with the local film club scene. He moved to São Paulo in 1984, where he later became a doctor of philosophy in communication science at the School of Communication and Art of the University of São Paulo (ECA/USP).

Araújo began his filmmaking career with the mid-length docudrama Memórias de classe (Class Memories, 1989 exploring the role of Afro Brazilians in São Paulo s labor movement This debut effort won the Ford ANPOCS Film Festival award for best screenplay The ...