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Article

Dominique Achille

was born to Marguerite Raymonne Ferdinand and Philéas Gustave Louis Achille on 31 August 1909 in Fort-de-France, Martinique, then a French colony. His father was the first man of color who passed “agrégation” (the highest teaching diploma in France) in the English language in 1905. Achille’s family history can be traced back to slaves who were freed in 1794. He spent his childhood and teenage years in Martinique, in an upper-middle-class family.

In 1926 he began studying English at Louis-le-Grand High School and at the Sorbonne in Paris, where Georges Pompidou and Léopold Sedar Senghor were among his peers. In the 1930s he contributed to La Revue du Monde Noir The Review of the Black World issued in Paris by his cousins Paulette and Jane Nardal This publication addressed cultural links between colored writers poets and thinkers through the world because at that time no specific review ...

Article

Curtis Jacobs

was born Geraldine Molly Leotaud on 29 May 1933, in Port-of-Spain, Trinidad, into a mixed-race, middle-class, single-parent, devoutly Roman Catholic family. Her mother, however, was also a keeper of Shango religion, a legacy of the Yoruba peoples brought to Trinidad during the African slave trade.

She grew up in a hybrid cultural milieu of Christianity and Yoruba religious tradition (called “Ifa” today). She later recalled her early life as a Roman Catholic, with its elaborate ceremonies, and her love of participation in them, when she was allowed to carry the censer. Beginning in her teens, she was an avid student of dance, and met Beryl McBurnie, founder of the Little Carib Theatre, which first opened at Port-of-Spain in 1947. McBurnie, herself a dancer of some repute, was very interested in the traditional dances of the descendants of the formerly enslaved Africans. From 1952 to 1965 Molly ...

Article

Robert N. Anderson

was born on 10 November 1954 in the town of Nanuque, Minas Gerais state, Brazil. It was there that, as an adolescent, he discovered world cinema in the city’s movie theaters and frequented his uncle’s theater company. He later moved to the state capital of Belo Horizonte, where he earned a bachelor’s degree in psychology and a master’s degree in sociology of education, all the while maintaining his connection with the local film club scene. He moved to São Paulo in 1984, where he later became a doctor of philosophy in communication science at the School of Communication and Art of the University of São Paulo (ECA/USP).

Araújo began his filmmaking career with the mid-length docudrama Memórias de classe (Class Memories, 1989 exploring the role of Afro Brazilians in São Paulo s labor movement This debut effort won the Ford ANPOCS Film Festival award for best screenplay The ...

Article

Roanne Edwards

As a performer, composer, and scholar of ethnic music, Susana Baca has become a leading expert on Afro-Peruvian musical traditions. Since the 1960s she has explored the distinctive rhythms, tempos, and instruments of the small but influential Afro-Peruvian community that has lived in relative isolation for nearly 500 years along the Pacific Ocean coast of Peru. Her research led to the path-breaking 1995 album The Soul of Black Peru, which presented Afro-Peruvian music to an international audience for the first time.

Baca leads a generation of musicians who interpret the Afro-Peruvian traditions first explored in the 1950s by the renowned ethnomusicologist Nicomedes Santa Cruz. Her performances use Afro-Peruvian rhythms that date back to the seventeenth century, as well as native instruments such as the Andean panpipes and the cajon a wooden box which when rhythmically struck with the hand produces a variety of unusual timbres Baca ...

Article

Theodore Cohen

was born in the town of Hopelchén, Campeche, on 7 January 1892 to Francisco José Baqueiro and Teodosía Fóster. Probably of Mayan and not of African descent, he was a relative of the famous nineteenth-century Yucatecan musician Chan Chil (Cirilio Baqueiro Prevé). Baqueiro Fóster attended primary school in Hopelchén before moving to Mérida, Yucatán, to continue his education. He learned to play the guitar, mandolin, violin, oboe, and flute, his instrument of choice. In 1921 he moved to Mexico City, and the following year he enrolled at the National Conservatory, where he studied with the renowned musical theorist Julián Carrillo. He later married Eloisa Ruiz Carvalho (1925–1980), a music critic and educator.

Baqueiro Fóster began to make a name for himself during Mexico’s First National Congress of Music in 1926 With fellow Carrillo disciple Daniel Castañeda he argued that Mexican composers could study indigenous music more accurately ...

Article

was born in Woodbrook Trinidad Bishop s deeply engrained love for music undoubtedly started with hearing her father Sonny Bishop who had been a choirboy sing Anglican and Methodist hymns in a high tenor as he did his chores When Bishop was a child Sonny encouraged her interest in music by taking her to hear classically trained African American singers such as Dorothy Maynor Paul Robeson and Robert McFerrin perform in Trinidad and sending her to piano lessons Her mother designed and made dresses that combined bright colors and bold textures and also hosted exhibitions in their family home in De Vertreuil Street Woodbrook This combination from an early age led Bishop to express an immense passion for music painting and poetry She received a national scholarship after her secondary school education at Bishop Anstey High School Port of Spain which allowed her to attend King s College University of ...

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Kip Lornell

gospel composer and teacher, was born in Duck Hill, Mississippi, the daughter of Burrell Campbell, a railroad worker, and Isabella Wilkerson. Lucy's mother was widowed several months after Lucy's birth, and the family soon moved from Carroll County to Memphis, Tennessee, the nearest major city. Lucie and her many siblings struggled to survive on their mother's meager wages, which she earned by washing and ironing clothing. Given the family's insubstantial income, it could afford a musical education for only one child, Campbell's older sister Lora. Lucie eventually learned to play piano, however, through her own persistence, a gifted ear for music, and a little help from Lora.

Lucie Campbell was a bright student who easily mastered elementary school and middle school, winning awards in both penmanship and Latin. Even before graduating from Kortrecht Senior High School (later Booker T. Washington High School as the class valedictorian she ...

Article

Kip Lornell

Campbell, Lucie E. (1885–03 January 1963), gospel composer and teacher, was born in Duck Hill, Mississippi, the daughter of Burrell Campbell, a railroad worker, and Isabella Wilkerson. Her mother was widowed several months after Lucie’s birth, and the family soon moved from Carroll County to Memphis, the nearest major city. Lucie and her many siblings struggled to survive on their mother’s meager wages, which she earned by washing and ironing clothing. Given the family’s insubstantial income, it could afford a musical education for only one child: Lucie’s older sister Lora. Lucie eventually learned to play piano, however, through her own persistence, a gifted ear for music, and a little help from Lora.

Lucie Campbell was a bright student who easily mastered elementary school and middle school winning awards in both penmanship and Latin Even before graduating from Kortrecht Senior High School later Booker T Washington as the ...

Article

Curtis Jacobs

was born Geraldine Roxanne Connor in the Paddington area of London, on 22 March 1952, the first of two children born to the black actor, singer, and folklorist Edric Connor and Pearl Nunez, Trinidadian-born immigrants who arrived there in 1944 and 1948 respectively. Her mother was of Portuguese and African ancestry. Connor was born into an artistic, creative household that received many famous visitors. She went to live in Trinidad at age eight, attending Tranquility Primary, the alma mater of Eric Williams, a family friend. Following her success at the Common Entrance Examinations, she attended Diego Martin Secondary from 1963 to 1968, the period during which her parents divorced. She returned to London in 1968.

Connor followed in her father’s footsteps, as she began her academic career in music. She entered the London School of Music in 1974 after which she returned to Trinidad to ...

Article

David B. McCarthy

musician, educator, and prominent Presbyterian, was born Melva Ruby Wilson in Due West, South Carolina, one of five children of Azzie Lee Ellis Wilson and John Theodore Wilson Sr., both of whom were college graduates and teachers. Because the local black public schools were unaccredited, her parents sent her to a black boarding school, Harbison Junior College in Irmo, South Carolina, at the age of fourteen. Two years later, at the age of sixteen, she entered Johnson C. Smith University in Charlotte, North Carolina. There she met fellow student James Hutten Costen. She graduated with a BA in Education in 1952 and married Jim Costen the day before he graduated in 1953. They eventually had two sons and one daughter, James Jr., Craig, and Cheryl.

Costen taught elementary school in the Mecklenburg County school system from 1952 to 1955 the year her husband ...

Article

Nelson Santana

known as the “Father of Dominican Rock,” was born on 21 June 1952 in the town of Maimón, Monseñor Nouel Province, Dominican Republic, to a working-class family. As a youngster, he demonstrated a passion for music. His mother was a spiritual singer and his father played the tres, a six-string guitar divided into three sets of two strings each. Días studied music in Bonao under the tutelage of Juan Zorrilla and Tatán Jiménez. At age 16 he formed his first musical group, Los Chonnys, blending the social, political, and historical culture of rural and urban life. In the early 1970s he left Bonao to study psychology at Universidad Autónoma de Santo Domingo (UASD) in the capital city, thus developing a sense of social conscience.

The nueva canción chilena New Chilean Song of the 1960s and the Cuban Revolution were movements that resonated throughout Latin America and Spain including ...

Article

Sarah B. Buchanan

, Togolese filmmaker and international legal adviser for the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, was born Ayele Folly-Reimann on 31 March 1954 in Lomé, Togo, to Amah Folly (a producer at the French world-music recording company OCORA and then at Radio France International) and Juliette Reimann. She has one sister. Folly studied law in Paris at the Université de Paris II–Panthéon-Assas. She began her career as an international legal adviser for UNESCO in 1981.

In the early 1990s Folly began making films In spired by Sarah Maldoror a French Guadeloupean filmmaker and Safi Faye a Senegalese filmmaker and ethnologist whom she has called des militantes dont le travail cinématographique est inspirant car il interroge l essence des problématiques des Africaines militants whose cinematographic work is inspiring because it interrogates the heart of the problems confronting African women Folly turned to film because she considers it similar to ...

Article

Andrew M. Fearnley

musicologist, opera singer, and diplomat, was born Zelma Watson in Hearne, Texas, the daughter of Samuel Watson, a Baptist minister, and Lena Thomas, a domestic worker. Zelma's parents attached a great deal of importance to education. As the former principal of a boarding school, Samuel Watson instilled into each of his six children an understanding of the value of education; until sixth grade their mother taught all the Watson children at home. The Watsons were also keen musicians, and family music-making sessions were a staple of Zelma's early life. As the eldest of the children, Zelma clearly took note of both of her parents' pet projects and made scholarship and song central to her own life.

Due to her father s job as a preacher Zelma s early life was rather peripatetic At age five she moved to Palestine Texas and then to Dallas Texas at ...

Article

was born at East Dry River, in Port-of-Spain, Trinidad on 28 April 1924. When he was ten, his family relocated to the west Port-of-Spain suburb named New Town close to a place named Calvary Road or “The Big Yard,” at the corner of Tragerete Road and Woodford Street.

New Town in 1934 was mainly populated by the lower classes and characterized by barrack yards, high unemployment, poor housing and sanitary facilities, and crime. A form of musical expression, induced by the colonial ban on the Africans and their descendants from playing drums, was emerging. The first recorded stage of this development was “tamboo-bamboo.”

Aware of tamboo bamboo before New Town Goddard encountered a similar but different type of musical expression musical instruments fashioned out of discarded biscuit and paint drums and automobile hubs the latter of which gave it its distinctive sound and name the steel band His parents ...

Article

Edward T. Washington

scholar, theater historian, editor, playwright, and director, was born Errol Gaston Hill in Port of Spain, Trinidad, the son of Thomas David and Lydia (Gibson) Hill. Hill's father lived away from the family throughout the boy's childhood, but his mother, a singer and actress in the local Methodist Church, strongly influenced him to pursue a theatrical career. Hill's involvement with drama took a major step forward in the mid-1940s when he co-founded, with the international actor Errol John and others a local amateur theater group called the Whitehall Players While writing acting and directing in that group Hill developed an interest in Trinidadian carnival and steel band music By the early 1950s with the assistance and support of the Trinidad and Tobago Youth Council Hill was among the first Trinidadians to air steel band music on the radio Given the worldwide popularity of ...

Article

Rebecca M. Bodenheimer

was born on 7 May 1918 in Havana. He began his musical studies at the age of 8 at the Municipal Conservatory of Havana. León studied at various national and international institutions and earned several degrees, including a degree in music pedagogy from the University of Havana in 1943, and one in composition from the Municipal Conservatory in 1945, where he studied with such celebrated composers as José Ardévol. He received a grant to study folklore at the University of Chile in 1951, and in 1957 he completed his musical education in Paris with famed composer Nadia Boulanger.

Along with other prominent art music composers such as Ardévol and Harold Gramatges, León formed part of the influential Grupo Renovación Musical, whose goal was to advance and promote contemporary Cuban classical music. He incorporated many elements of folkloric music into his compositions—in his piano composition Akorín for ...

Article

Together with sociologist Fernando Ortiz and anthropologist Lydia Cabrera, Argeliers León is regarded as one of the most influential scholars of Afro-Cuban culture. From 1961 to 1971 he directed the Institute of Ethnology and Folklore of the Cuban Academy of Sciences and taught African art and Afro Cuban ...

Article

Christopher Phelps

writer and activist, was the second of two sons born to Reverend W. D. Lester, a Methodist minister, and Julia (Smith) Lester in St. Louis, Missouri. When he was two years old the family moved to Kansas City, Kansas. His father, seeking dignity, invariably wore a suit and tie, teaching his sons that separate “colored” facilities were demeaning and never to be used. The family spent its summers in the South at the rural home of Lester's maternal grandmother in Pine Bluff, Arkansas.

Lester's early precocity manifested itself in his love for reading and a propensity to challenge teachers. A childhood spent deep within the folds of the black community did not shield him from terror and anger. He later wrote that under segregation, “Hope was the name some dreamer bestowed on a daughter, … change was what the white man at the store might give you ...

Article

Karen R. Bloom

Julius Lester was born on 27 January 1939 in St. Louis, Missouri, the son of Woodie Daniel Lester and Julia B. Smith Lester. He received his BA from Fisk University in 1960, with a semester at San Diego State College, and an MA from the University of Massachusetts at Amherst in 1971, where he is currently a professor. He is married to his second wife and has four children. Lester has won the Newbery Honor Award (1969) and the Massachusetts State Professor of the Year Award (1986), and was a finalist for the National Book Award (1972) and the National Jewish Book Award (1988). Lester converted to Judaism in 1982.

Julius Lester s literary career has spanned a broad variety of political events and literary genres Lester began his career as an activist with the Student Nonviolent Coordinating ...

Article

John Wriggle

composer, trombonist, writer, and educator, was born in Chicago, Illinois, the son of George Thomas Lewis, originally from North Carolina, and Cornelia Griffith of Georgia. George attended public elementary school before enrolling at the University of Chicago Laboratory School at age nine, at which time his parents bought him a trombone to assist with what he called “social development.” By age twelve George was listening to the music of Charlie Parker, Thelonious Monk, and John Coltrane, learning solos from jazz recordings such as Lester Young with the Oscar Peterson Trio, and studying improvisation with the trombonist Dean Hey.

At Yale University, from which he earned a BA in Philosophy in 1974, Lewis found company in the sextet of the pianist and fellow student Anthony Davis After becoming dissatisfied with the artistic boundaries imposed by the music department at ...