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Carolyn Vellenga Berman

was born on 20 July 1925 in Fort-de-France, capital of Martinique, then a French colony in the Antilles. He was the fifth of eight children in a middle-class family. His father, Félix Casimir Fanon, who worked in French customs, was the descendant of an affranchi, an individual emancipated before the definitive abolition of French colonial slavery in 1848. His mother, Eléanore Médélice, a shop owner, was proud of her mixed ancestry, including Austrians who had immigrated to Alsace, France. Although Fanon’s parents spoke Martinican Creole, his education was only in French. He read widely at the local library and attended the Lycée Schoelcher, an elite school in Fort-de-France. One of his French teachers was Aimé Césaire, the author of Cahier d’un retour au pays natal (Notebook of a Return to the Native Land, 1939 a seminal poem for the proponents of Negritude and a searching exploration of ...

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Juliano Moreira spoke out for blacks and mestiços (Brazilian term for people of mixed race) by challenging racial prejudices in Brazilian society, such as the then-prevalent belief in the negative impact of racial mixing. In his article “Assistance to the Alienated,” published in 1905, he affirmed that “the bad elements that constitute our nationality are due our ample physical, moral and social degradation, and have been unfairly attributed solely to fact of mestiçagem [racial mixing].” Moreira believed that descendents of the mixture of natives, Africans, and Europeans were in every social class in Brazil, a Brazilian social phenomenon that he considered important.

Moreira was born in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. He was admitted to the Medical School of Bahia in 1891 where he dedicated his studies to psychiatry His academic career began when he was accepted as an assistant professor of psychiatry at the Medical School of ...