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Firmus  

Allen J. Fromherz

child of a Berber mother and a Roman prince named Nubel; there is little information on Firmus before he became a problem for the Roman Empire. He only emerges in the sources after the death of his father in the first part of the 370s ce Like his father Nubel who was an officer in the Roman army and a Christian Firmus was integrated into the Roman social and political system of patron client relations even as he rebelled against the emperor At the same time Firmus benefited from his position as part of the tribal elite of the surrounding countryside Typical of most barbarian rebel leaders of the later empire Firmus saw himself as an upholder of Roman justice When he claimed the title of emperor he naturally adopted Roman symbols of authority even donning the purple robe and imperial diadem A man between both worlds Firmus would ...

Article

Eric Fournier

, North African military leader and leader of a revolt against Rome, is mainly known through inscriptions, as well as brief passages of Ammianus Marcellinus’s Res gestae. Literary sources that mention Nubel were mainly concerned with the later revolts against Rome orchestrated by two of his sons, Firmus and Gildo. This is the case with Ammianus’s passing remarks, for the historian’s main purpose was to describe the suppression of Firmus’s revolt by Theodosius the elder (father of Emperor Theodosius [379–395], who ruled when Ammianus was writing). This situation explains our fragmentary knowledge of Nubel’s life and career. Such basic information as when he was born and when he died (probably by the early 370s) is not known. The best estimation puts him as active in the middle of the fourth century CE.

An inscription from Rusguniae Tamenfoust Algeria also known as La Pérouse contains important information about a certain ...

Article

Inaros  

Eugene Cruz-Uribe

ancient Egyptian rebel leader, the son of Psammetichus of Libya, led a revolt (c. 464/3–458/7 BCE) against the Persians during the reign of Artaxerxes I (r. 465–425 BCE). Most of the information about Inaros derives from the classical sources of Herodotus, Ctesias, Diodorus, and Thucydides. The sole example of Inaros’s name from an Egyptian source notes that he was the prince of a Libyan tribe (Bakalu), though it used the standard dating formula for Egyptian kings.

The revolt of Inaros corresponded roughly to the beginning of the reign of Artaxerxes I When the early Persian kings began their reigns revolts often broke out at select areas of the Persian Empire In the case of Egypt such revolts happened at the beginnings of the reigns of Darius I and Xerxes I In both of those cases ephemeral rebel kings declared themselves pharaoh and attempted to rule all of Egypt It is ...

Article

Kahina  

Allen J. Fromherz

semi legendary queen of the Aures Mountain Berbers who resisted the Arab Muslim conquest of North Africa Her name the Kahina meaning the sorceress in Arabic was ascribed to her by Arab chronicles Indeed the main sources describing the Arab conquest of the Berbers are all in Arabic and are written from the perspective of the conqueror Legends ascribed to Kahina therefore must be seen as part of a conquest narrative even as they often portray her as a noble adversary of the spread of Islam Nevertheless it is almost certain that Kahina represented a historic person a woman or perhaps even a group of different queens or chieftesses who resisted the Arab conquest in the late seventh century Her memory is preserved and celebrated even by the most strident Berber converts to Islam In recent years she has become a powerful symbol of Berber nationalism both within and beyond ...

Article

Kahina  

Marian Aguiar

In the seventh century, the Arabs arrived in the land they called Ifriqiya, in present-day Tunisia, bringing Islam and seeking gold. The Jarawa Berbers in the Aurès Mountains became the main force halting their progress through North Africa. This group was known for their military prowess, and although they offered nominal allegiance to the Byzantine Empire, they in fact ruled their own land. Their chief was the Kahina, a woman who, some said, was more than a hundred years old and had two sons of two fathers, one Greek and one Berber She might have been a Christian or a Jew and some historians have attributed her resistance to religious fervor Or she might have simply been a strong ruler who would rather burn down her own kingdom than let it fall into the hands of an outside force There is little historical documentation of the Kahina s ...

Article

William E. Burns

soldier and rebellion participant, was born in Stoughton, Massachusetts, the son of Moses Sash and Sarah Colley, free blacks who were listed as “molatoes” in the church record of their marriage. Moses Sash the younger served in the American Revolution, enlisting on 17 August 1777 in Colonel Ruggles Woodbridge's regiment and serving until 29 November 1777. His unit saw action at the battle of Saratoga. On 17 April 1781 Sash reenlisted for a term of three years as part of the quota of men assigned to the town of Cummington, Massachusetts. He was a private in the Seventh Regiment of Lieutenant Colonel John Brooks, serving mostly in the area of West Point, New York.

Sash played a significant role in the western Massachusetts uprising of 1786 and early 1787 led by Captain Daniel Shays over matters of debt taxation and the feeling of western Massachusetts ...

Article

Caryn Cossé Bell

military officer, was born into an influential family of free persons of African descent in the city of Saint-Marc in the French colony of Saint-Domingue (later Haiti). He married the Saint-Marc native Marie Charlotte Lajoie, and the couple had at least two sons, Belton and Bertile Savary. The family fled their native land during the Haitian Revolution and eventually emigrated to New Orleans in a massive Saint-Domingue refugee movement in 1809 and 1810 that nearly doubled the size of the city.

Charles Joseph Savary s life spanned the American French and Haitian revolutions and because of the tumultuous age in which he lived the facts related to his history are scarce fragmentary and sometimes contradictory Part of the problem also stems from circumstances that forced Savary to conceal his identity In Saint Domingue s repressive three caste society and in slave regimes throughout the Americas free men ...