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Nicole L. Phillip-Dowe

was born on 29 May 1944 in Aruba to Alimenta (née La Grenade) and Rupert Bishop. The family returned to their native Grenada when Maurice was 7 years old. He attended the J. W. Fletcher Memorial primary school in St. George’s and won a scholarship to complete his secondary education at the Presentation Boys College. In 1963 he migrated to England where he studied law at Gray’s Inn, London. As a law student he was the cofounder of a legal aid clinic at Notting Hill. On completing his law degree in 1969 he took a job in the tax department of the British Civil Service. He returned to Grenada in 1970.

Racism and the economic disparity of rich and poor formed part of Bishop s experience in London The rise of black nationalism and black power made evident by the works of Kwame Nkrumah of Ghana Julius Nyerere of ...

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Allison Drew

South African solicitor and Communist, was born on 29 June 1873 in London. He was the second of four children of prominent Nonconformists Percy Bunting and Mary Hyett Lidgett Bunting and the great grandson of Dr. Jabez Bunting, the foremost figure of early nineteenth-century Wesleyan Methodism. Bunting’s father, a barrister at Lincoln’s Inn, edited the prestigious Contemporary Review and was a leading figure in the Liberal Party; his mother was a social activist on behalf of working-class girls and women. The Buntings hosted frequent overseas visitors representing various social and political causes. Bunting internalized the ideals of moral rectitude and service to others imbued in him by his parents, and carried them with him throughout his life.

Intelligent and musically gifted, Bunting excelled in classics, winning scholarships to University College School and St. Paul’s School. In 1892 he entered Magdalen College Oxford as a classics demy scholarship student In ...

Article

Brian Gilmore

civil rights lawyer and activist, was born in Newport, Rhode Island. Lynn was one of seven children of Nette (Irving) Lynn, a domestic worker, and Joseph Lynn, a laborer. Lynn's parents were originally from Augusta, Georgia. They had been married in 1904 and migrated north in 1906 when their multimillionaire employer also moved north. Eventually they came to live in Rockville Centre, on New York's Long Island, where they settled in a black ghetto set in a swampy lowland. The mortality rate in Lynn's neighborhood was very high, but even though he was a somewhat sickly young child, he survived.

In 1926 Lynn graduated from Malverne High School as its salutatorian His academic skills were so exceptional that Syracuse University awarded him a debating scholarship With funds raised partially from a bake sale the mothers club of Lynn s high school presented Lynn s mother with ...

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Orion A. Teal

civil rights activist, lawyer, and Communist Party official. William L. Patterson was born in San Francisco, California, on 27 August 1891; the record of his birth was lost in the San Francisco earthquake of 1906, and his New York Times obituary gives his birthday as 29 August 1890. At an early age he moved across the San Francisco Bay to Oakland, where he spent much of his young life. After graduating from high school at age twenty, Patterson attended the University of California, Berkeley, for several years with the intention of becoming a mining engineer. He eventually graduated from the Hastings College of Law at the University of California in 1919. During this time he had become involved in antiwar activism and became interested in socialism.

After an aborted attempt to relocate to Liberia Patterson moved to New York where he worked for a black law ...

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Jalane Schmidt

Born and raised in the San Francisco area, William L. Patterson attended local public schools and later abandoned studies in engineering at the University of California at Berkeley to pursue a J.D. at the Hastings College of Law in San Francisco. At Hastings Patterson began a lifelong involvement in political issues, protesting racism and arguing against African American participation in the “white man's” World War I. Earning his law degree in 1919, Patterson moved to New York City and established a legal practice in Harlem with two colleagues. His years in New York coincided with the height of the Harlem Renaissance, and Patterson developed relationships with Paul Robeson, W. E. B. Du Bois, and other prominent African American activists. He began to work increasingly with left-wing causes, and was active in the ultimately fruitless campaign to free Nicola Sacco and Bartolomeo Vanzetti immigrant Italian anarchists ...

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Barbara L. Ciccarelli

Patterson, William L. (27 August 1891–05 March 1980), writer, attorney, and leader of the American Communist party was born William Lorenzo Patterson in San Francisco California the son of James Edward Patterson a ship s cook and dentist and Mary Galt a domestic After his father left the family to become a missionary as a Seventh day Adventist his mother worked to support the family Failure to pay the rent resulted in numerous evictions but Patterson managed to attend Tamalpais High School in California by working first as a newsboy and later as a racetrack hand He graduated from high school in 1911 and studied to be a mining engineer at the University of California Berkeley but had to drop out because he could not afford tuition No scholarships were available and he objected to Berkeley s compulsory military training Later Patterson refused to participate in World ...

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Barbara L. Ciccarelli

writer, attorney, and leader of the American Communist Party, was born William Lorenzo Patterson in San Francisco, California, the son of James Edward Patterson, a ship's cook and dentist, and Mary Galt, a domestic. After his father left the family to become a missionary as a Seventh-day Adventist, his mother worked to support the family. Failure to pay the rent resulted in numerous evictions, but Patterson managed to attend Tamalpais High School in California by working first as a newsboy and later as a racetrack hand. He graduated from high school in 1911 and studied at the University of California Berkeley to be a mining engineer but he had to drop out because he could not afford tuition No scholarships were available and he objected to Berkeley s compulsory military training Later Patterson refused to participate in World War I because he felt that ...

Article

Peter Limb

Joe Slovo was a central figure in the national liberation movement of South Africa, chiefly as a theorist and leader of the South African Communist Party (SACP) and African National Congress (ANC). His importance lies in the way he adroitly combined Marxism (as applied in the South African situation) with national liberation ideology, as well as his ability as a strategist of armed struggle and then as a flexible, yet principled, negotiator for democracy.

Slovo migrated to South Africa at age nine to join his working-class Jewish family. He joined the Communist Party of South Africa at age sixteen and became a National Union of Distributive Workers’ shop steward. After serving in the army in World War II, he was active in the radical veterans’ Springbok Legion. Qualifying as a lawyer, he defended Africans arrested during the 1950s for opposing apartheid. In 1949 Slovo married radical journalist Ruth ...

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Kate Tuttle

Lithuanian-born Joe Slovo moved to South Africa at the age of nine and grew up in a working-class Jewish neighborhood in Johannesburg. In 1942 he joined the Communist Party of South Africa (later renamed the South African Communist Party) and, shortly thereafter, the South African Army, with which he fought in World War II (1939–1945). After the war he studied law at the University of Witwatersrand, where he befriended Nelson Mandela, who was then the university’s only black student. When Mandela and others formed the African National Congress (ANC) Youth League in 1944, Slovo argued for the multiracial cooperation that became an ANC trademark.

Slovo acted as Mandela’s lawyer in his first trial for treason in 1956 a trial in which Slovo was also a defendant In the early 1960s he helped found Umkhonto we Sizwe the ANC s covert military wing and served for a ...

Article

Raymond Suttner

leading South African communist and antiapartheid activist, was treated by the apartheid regime as its key enemy. At the same time he had a heroic image among the oppressed black majority as a white person totally dedicated to liberation.

Slovo, whose birth name was Yossel Mashel, was born into poverty in Obel, a village in Lithuania, the son of Yiddish-speaking parents, who were isolated from the Lithuanian community by their language and by anti-Semitism. His father left Obel when Joe was two years old to find a better environment. Settling in Johannesburg, South Africa, as a fruit hawker, it was six years before the father could send for his family. Joe arrived in 1936 then ten years old According to his daughter Gillian the Slovo family were on the lowest rung of the newly arrived Jewish community but the color of their skin opened a world of opportunity denied ...