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Patrick G. Williams

Anderson, Charles William (28 April 1866–28 January 1938), politician and public official, was born in Oxford, Ohio, the son of Charles W. Anderson and Serena (maiden name unknown). After a public school education in his hometown and in Middletown, Ohio, he studied at Spencerian Business College in Cleveland and the Berlitz School of Languages in Worcester, Massachusetts. His schooling continued informally, as Anderson matured into an intellectually accomplished and engaging man. His friend James Weldon Johnson noted his versatility, which included acute powers of observation and an ability to converse on many subjects, including “the English poets, the Irish patriots, [and] the contemporary leaders of the British Parliament” (Johnson, p. 219).

Anderson put these talents to good use after moving to New York City in 1886 He grasped at what opportunities Republican party politics offered ambitious black men and developed a ward heeler s capacity for keeping ...

Article

Patrick G. Williams

politician and public official, was born in Oxford, Ohio, the son of Charles W. Anderson and Serena (maiden name unknown). After a public school education in his hometown and in Middletown, Ohio, Charles studied at Spencerian Business College in Cleveland and at the Berlitz School of Languages in Worcester, Massachusetts. Anderson's schooling continued informally as he matured into an intellectually accomplished and engaging man. His friend James Weldon Johnson noted Anderson's versatility, which included acute powers of observation and an ability to converse on many subjects, including “the English poets, the Irish patriots, [and] the contemporary leaders of the British Parliament” (Johnson, 219).

Anderson put these talents to good use after moving to New York City in 1886. He grabbed whatever opportunities that Republican Party politics offered ambitious black men, and he developed a ward heeler's capacity for keeping close track of voters, loaves, and fishes. By 1890 ...

Article

Carolyn Wedin

internal revenue collector and Republican politician. Charles Anderson was the black Karl Rove of his day; he was Booker T. Washington's most trusted confidante and an activist in Washington's cause from his location in New York City. There is some dispute as to whether Anderson was born in Oxford, Ohio, or in Tennessee, as census records seem to suggest. Though for the most part self-educated, he did attend public schools in Oxford and Middleton, Ohio, as well as Spencerian Business College in Cleveland and the Berlitz School of Languages in Worcester, Massachusetts. Moving to New York City in 1886, he immediately became involved in Republican politics, stumping in the Negro wards. In 1890 he became president of the Young Men's Colored Republican Club of New York County, and by 1895 he was considered a “prominent” black New Yorker by the Times which reported him among members of the ...

Article

Marixa Lasso

known as “the Liberator,” in Venezuela, Colombia, and elsewhere in Latin America, was born on 24 July 1783 in Caracas, Venezuela. He was the son of doña María de la Concepción Palacios y Blanco and don Juan Vicente Bolívar y Ponte. Both parents died while he was a young boy, and he was raised by an uncle. His mother was descended from a family in the Canary Islands, and his father was of Basque descent. The Bolívar family had been in the Americas for seven generations and was a prominent and wealthy family of slave and plantations owners. This wealth and status gave Bolívar access to the best education available, as well as the opportunity to spend part of his formative years in Europe.

Bolívar first traveled to Europe when he was 15 years old. He returned again as a young widower, in 1803 During his second trip he ...

Article

Simón Bolívar was born to a family of wealthy cacao plantation landholders who owned many slaves. Educated by private tutors in Caracas and Spain, Bolívar was profoundly influenced by the thinkers of the European Enlightenment, in particular the liberal ideas of French philosopher Jean-Jacques Rousseau, as well as by the American Revolution (1775–1783), and the French Revolution (1789–1799).

With the news of Napoleon Bonaparte's invasion of Spain in 1808, and the consequent political weakness of the Spanish rulers in Madrid, Bolívar and other elite criollos (Creoles, people of European descent born in the Americas) started to organize local juntas (councils) in order to replace the colonial government. In 1810, with Commander Francisco de Miranda he led a revolt against the Spanish forces in Venezuela Some historians say that Miranda and Bolívar wanted to take power from the European colonizers ...

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Steven J. Niven

educator and politician, was born in Charleston, South Carolina, the third son of Lydia Williams, a freewoman of color, and Isaac Nunez Cardozo, a prominent white Jewish businessman. Cardozo's elder brothers, the Glasgow University-educated Francis Louis Cardozo and Henry Cardozo, were both prominent politicians and educators in Reconstruction-era South Carolina. Like his brothers, Thomas enjoyed the privileges of Charleston's freeborn black elite in his youth, attending private schools in the city, but experienced a reversal in his family fortunes following the death of his father in 1855. Apprenticed for a time to a Charleston manufacturer of rice-threshing machines, the youngest Cardozo moved to New York City with his mother in 1857 because of growing hostility to and legislative restrictions against free blacks in South Carolina. He continued his studies at Collegiate Institute in Newburgh, New York, and beginning in 1861 taught for several years in ...

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Sean Patrick Adams

Salmon Portland Chase was born in New Hampshire. He graduated from Dartmouth College in 1826 and eventually set up a successful law practice in Cincinnati, Ohio. After defending the freedom of several escaped slaves in Ohio, Chase became more involved in the growing antislavery movement of the 1830s and 1840s. He first affiliated himself with the Liberty Party and attempted to shape it into more than a single-issue antislavery organization. Throughout his political career, Chase was able to hold a curious balance between political idealism and aggressive self-promotion. His performance in the 1848 convention that resulted in the formation of the Free Soil Party was a case in point Chase gained national prominence in his role as chair of the convention and proved to be an effective coalition builder Although he was not satisfied with the narrow goals of the Free Soil movement he was willing to ...

Article

John N. Ingham

businessman and politician, was born a free person of color in New Orleans, Louisiana, the son of Bernard Cohen and Amelia Bingaman, a free woman of color. Although Cohen's father was Jewish, he was raised as and remained throughout his life a Roman Catholic. His parents died when he was in the fourth grade, whereupon he had to quit school, though he later attended Straight University in New Orleans for several years. As a boy Cohen became a cigar maker and later worked in a saloon. His entrée into the world of politics came during the period of Reconstruction, when he worked as a page in the state legislature, then meeting in New Orleans. There, Cohen became acquainted with several influential black Republicans, among them Oscar J. Dunn, C. C. Antoine, and P. B. S. Pinchback Pinchback founder of and dominant figure in the city ...

Article

George Derek Musgrove

politician, was born Mervyn Malcolm Dymally in Cedros, Trinidad, to Hamid Dymally, an Indian businessman, and Andreid Richardson, a black Trinidadian. In Trinidad he attended Cedros Government School, St. Benedict School, and Naparima College, from which he graduated in 1944. Upon graduation Dymally took a job as a reporter for the Vanguard Weekly, the newspaper of the local oil workers union.

In 1946 Dymally immigrated to the United States to attend Lincoln University in Jefferson City, Missouri, where he planned to study journalism. Unable to adjust to the environment in Missouri, however, he dropped out after one semester and traveled around the United States in search of work and school. After two years of constant travel and countless jobs Dymally settled in Los Angeles, California, and began attending Los Angeles State College, where he received his BA in Education in 1954.

After graduation Dymally ...

Article

Susan Love Brown

journalist, educator, politician, and statesman. Mervyn Malcolm Dymally, born in Cedros, Trinidad, achieved many “firsts” in American politics. His mother, Andreid Richardson, of Trinidadian descent, and his father, Hamid Dymally, of South Asian descent, educated him through high school, at Naparima College in San Fernando, Trinidad, after which he worked as a reporter for the Oilfields Workers Trade Union newspaper, The Vanguard, in Trinidad. This spurred his interest in a journalistic career, which took him to Lincoln University in Missouri at the age of nineteen. Eventually, he moved to Los Angeles State College of Applied Arts and Sciences, where he majored in education, receiving his bachelor's degree in 1954. From then on he combined education, politics, and involvement in international issues as the interests that guided his career.

While working as a science special education teacher in the Los Angeles Unified School District ...

Article

Frank R. Levstik

Thomas J. Ferguson was born on September 15, 1830, in Essex County, Virginia, the son of freeborn parents of mixed blood. Little is known of his early years, but it is recorded that by the 1850s he resided in Cincinnati, Ohio. There, Ferguson became an active member of the Masonic order, serving as junior warden of the Cincinnati lodge in 1859 and 1860. During 1859 he moved to Albany, in Athens County, Ohio, where he became a landowner and enrolled as a student at the integrated Albany Manual Labor University. Four years later, he was a leader in establishing the Albany Enterprise Academy in Ohio. Ferguson served on the first board of trustees of the school.

The Enterprise Academy opened its doors to students in 1864, following an appropriation from the Freedmen's Bureau and private gifts from individuals such as Union general Otis Oliver Howard ...

Article

Adah Ward Randolph

educator, politician, activist, pastor, author, and Masonic leader, was born in Essex County, Virginia, to free parents of mixed white and black ancestry. In 1831 Virginia outlawed the education of free blacks, and many of them migrated to other states, including Ohio. The Act of 1831 may account for the migration of Ferguson's family to Cincinnati, which Ferguson listed as his home when he attended Albany Manual Labor Academy (AMLA) in Albany, Ohio. While it is unclear how Ferguson attained an elementary education, the Albany Manual Labor University records list T. J. Ferguson of Cincinnati as a student in the collegiate department during the 1857–1859 academic year. James Monroe Trotter, veteran of the Fifty-fifth Massachusetts Regiment and musicologist, also attended AMLA. Incorporated as a university in 1853 Albany Manual Labor University AMLU offered an integrated education which accepted students regardless of color ...

Article

Mamie E. Locke

social worker and clubwoman, was born in Ocala, Florida, the daughter of Charles McCoy and Mamie Ellis. She grew up in Chicago, where her mother moved after her parents divorced in 1903. Beginning in 1905 she attended the Fisk University Normal School in Nashville, Tennessee, from which she graduated in 1910.

Returning to Chicago after her graduation, McCoy could not find work as a teacher because of racism. She engaged in the kind of drudgework most black women were able to find at that time: laundry and cleaning, earning as little as five dollars per week. In 1914 she married Harris B. Gaines, a Chicago lawyer; they had two sons. She returned to school in 1918, studying social work at the University of Chicago until 1921. She eventually did further study at Loyola University's School of Social Administration from 1935 to 1937 ...

Article

Steven J. Niven

lieutenant‐governor of South Carolina and the leading nineteenth century African American freemason, was born in Philadelphia to parents whose names have not been recorded. His father was a free person of color from Haiti and his mother was a white Englishwoman. Gleaves was educated in Philadelphia and New Orleans, and as a young man worked as a steward on steamboats along the Mississippi River.

Gleaves first came to prominence as an organizer of Masonic lodges in Pennsylvania and Ohio. While black freemasonry had gained a foothold under Prince Hall in Massachusetts in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries, by the 1840s, Pennsylvania was the center of black fraternalism, and Gleaves would become one of the Order's leading evangelists before the Civil War. In 1846 the year he was first initiated as a brother mason the Pennsylvania Grand Lodge of Prince Hall Masons appointed Gleaves a District Deputy Grand ...

Article

Susan J. McWilliams

legislator and activist, was born Grace Towns in Atlanta, Georgia, the second of five children of George Alexander Towns, a professor of English and pedagogy at Atlanta University, and Nellie McNair, a graduate of the same institution. Both of her parents placed a high premium on education, civic involvement, and political activism. George Towns was a protégé and friend of W. E. B. Du Bois, publicly supporting his clashes with Booker T. Washington and independently striving to increase the ranks of African American voters. Nellie Towns, meanwhile, volunteered extensively in the community; she worked with the First Congregational Church and the Young Women's Christian Association (YWCA), and she helped found the Gate City Free Kindergarten Association, which assisted children of the black working poor. In this environment, the young Grace Towns grew up with senses of relative privilege and social obligation.

For a time Towns was ...

Article

Sowande' Mustakeem

Grace Towns Hamilton is best known as the first African American woman to serve in the Georgia legislature. Throughout her political career, Hamilton upheld the ideals of interracial cooperation, but her continued activism reflected her faithful commitment to political empowerment and the improvement of social conditions for African Americans.

Born in Atlanta, Georgia, Hamilton was the eldest of the four surviving children of George Towns and Nellis McNair Towns Raised in the close knit community of Atlanta on the campus of Atlanta University Hamilton was protected during her early life from the racism that was common throughout much of Georgia Within the Towns s home education church community involvement and service to the black race were emphasized Hamilton s mother a housewife and committed volunteer for the African American branch of the Young Women Christian Association YWCA played a role in Hamilton s later community activism and personal ...

Article

Timothy M. Broughton

civil rights leader and politician, was born John Luzine LeFlore in Mobile, Alabama, the son of Dock LeFlore and Clara Barber. The fifth of five children, John LeFlore was born two years after the ratification of Alabama's Sixth Constitution. Aware of the limited opportunities afforded to blacks, Dock LeFlore taught his family to be proud and hardworking, and he brought them into Mobile's black middle class. Although he died when John LeFlore was only nine months old, his values and work ethic had a lasting influence. John LeFlore sold newspapers at the age of ten and landed a job at the local shipyard at thirteen.

In 1920 LeFlore graduated from Owens Academy in Mobile, one of the few good schools for black students. In 1922 he married Teah Jessie Beck and began work as a postal worker. While riding on the city's railcar in 1925 a white ...

Article

Anne K. Driscoll

politician and social worker, was born Carrie Saxon in Hartford, Connecticut, the only child of Mabel Lee Saxon. Growing up in Hartford's housing projects exposed Perry to the crushing effects of poverty and crime. But rather than being defeated by it, Perry persevered and went on to become a force for change. Perry graduated from high school in 1949 and then attended Howard University, where she earned a bachelor of science in Political Science in 1953. During this time she married James Perry Sr. They had one child, James Perry Jr. Perry entered Howard's School of Law that same year, but did not complete the law program. Instead she returned in 1955 to Hartford where she became a social worker While she served in many professions they all had one element in common The positions involved helping the people of Hartford to have better ...

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Jane Brodsky Fitzpatrick

civil rights activist, first African American to serve on the Miami City Commission, and first since Reconstruction to head a state agency, was born Mary Athalie Wilkinson in Key West, Florida, to Edward L. Wilkinson, a cigar factory and loading dock foreman, and Grace Shultz.

Range's family moved to Miami around 1921. She graduated from Booker T. Washington Senior High School in Overtown, a historically black town established when blacks were not allowed to live in segregated Miami. During World War II, she worked picking up trash from railroad cars. In 1937 she married Oscar Range. A certified funeral director, he opened the Range Funeral Home in Miami in 1953. They had four children.

When her husband died of a heart attack in 1960 Athalie Range enrolled in the New England Institute of Anatomy Sanitary Science and Embalming Boston Massachusetts where she earned her ...

Article

Linda Chavers

secretary of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, women's and civil rights activist, and campaigner against misogynistic lyrics in rap music, was born Cynthia DeLores Nottage in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, the tenth of eleven children of the Reverend Whitfield Nottage, a minister, and Captilda Gardiner, a businesswoman. Because Tucker's father, an immigrant from the Bahamas, did not accept a salary from the churches that employed him, it was left to Tucker's mother, whom Tucker later described as a “Christian feminist,” to provide for the family (Washington Post, 13 Oct. 2005 She did so by starting an employment agency for Southern black migrants to Philadelphia running grocery stores and investing in real estate Tucker s socially conservative parents did not allow her or her siblings to listen to popular music go to dances or date before the age of twenty one Tucker spent much of her ...