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Russell Hopley

emir of the Almoravid dynasty from 1106 to 1143, was born in the Moroccan city of Ceuta to a mother who was a Christian captive from Spain. ʿAli inherited rule of the Almoravid state upon the death of his father, Yusuf ibn Tashfin, in 1106. Almoravid rule at the time of ʿAli’s accession to power was at its zenith and encompassed a considerable portion of territory of the Islamic west, including Andalusia, the western region of North Africa, and portions of the bilad al-Sudan Indeed it is a commonplace of the classical Arabic chronicles that ʿAli s name was invoked from some two thousand pulpits at the outset of every Friday sermon However his rule was beset with a host of serious problems almost from the outset ranging from quarrels among the various tribal factions that formed the backbone of the Almoravid regime to doctrinal disputes the ...

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Idris I  

Stephen Cory

founder of the first Islamic dynasty in Morocco the Idrisids who ruled over portions of the country between 788 and 985 was born and raised in Arabia Idris ibn ʿAbdullah is said to have fled from Abbasid persecution to the farthest west where he established his authority among Awraba Berbers near the ancient Roman city of Volubilis Declaring himself a descendant of the Prophet s grandson Hasan Idris extended his rule throughout northern Morocco However his reign was cut short when the Abbasid caliph Harun al Rashid had him poisoned in 791 Idris is credited with laying the foundations for the city of Fez which his son Idris II would later complete Idris II also established a state that stretched from the Sus valley in the south to the city of Oran in the northeast His kingdom was divided among his descendants who maintained political authority in parts of northern ...

Article

Russell Hopley

final emir of the Almoravid dynasty in the Maghreb (present-day Morocco), the grandson of the eminent Almoravid emir Yusuf bin Tashfin (d. 1106), assumed rule of the Almoravid state, already significantly reduced, in its terminal phase. He took power in 1145 at the age of fifteen following a palace coup that overthrew his nephew, Ibrahim bin Tashfin, aged only nine at the time of his removal. Ishaq’s brief tenure as emir was marked by a series of decisive defeats for the Almoravids. The Almohad armies commanded by ʿAbd al-Muʾmin al-Kumi (d. 1163) made rapid progress during the first year of Ishaq’s rule in their effort to occupy the eastern regions of Morocco. The strategically placed cities of Oran, Tlemcen, Oujda, Taza, Guercif, Fez, and Meknès fell in quick succession to the Almohads. Several chronicles report that the Almoravid defenders of Fez simply removed their facial veils, the litham for ...

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Russell Hopley

emir of the Zirid dynasty (962–1108) in present-day Tunisia, was born at the Zirid royal residence in Sabra near the capital city of al-Qayrawan. Tamim was designated heir apparent to the Zirid throne in 1050 by his father, al-Muʿizz (r. 1016–1062). He was subsequently appointed governor of Mahdia in 1053. Following the destruction of al-Qayrawan in 1057 by Hilali Bedouin tribesmen, Zirid rule was effectively confined to the city of Mahdia and its environs, and the task of restoring the Zirid state to its former grandeur would be the focus of much of Tamim’s efforts when he acceded to power in 1062.

Tamim was said to be tall fair complexioned and endowed with a powerful physique and he devoted considerable time tending to his health and appearance He received an extensive education in classical Arabic letters while growing up in al Qayrawan and he showed a fine appreciation ...

Article

Russell Hopley

emir of the Moroccan Almoravid dynasty from 1061 to 1106, whose origins were among the veiled nomadic Berbers of the Banu Turgut, a branch of the Sanhaja confederation of tribes whose historical homeland encompassed the vast desert expanses of northwest Africa, a region roughly comprising present-day upper Senegal and Mauritania. Yusuf ibn Tashfin (frequently rendered as Tashufin) first appears in the classical Arabic sources for North African history in 1061, already aged 50, when he assumed leadership of the Sanhaja, effectively replacing his cousin Abu Bakr ibn ʿUmar (d. 1087) in that role. The formerly pagan tribes of the Sanhaja had been brought into the fold of Islam by ʿAbd Allah ibn Yasin al-Jazuli (d. 1059 a strict Maliki and subsequently adopted the epithet of al Murabitun Latinized in European sources as Almoravids both as a sign of their commitment to the new faith and as ...