Mixed‐race American sea captain who, as a champion of the abolition movement, journeyed to Britain in 1811 to meet sympathetic friends from the African Institution. Cuffee (also spelt Cuff, Cuffe, Cuffey) was born in Massachusetts to a manumitted slave, Cuffee Slocum, and a Native American, Ruth Moses. A committed Quaker, Cuffee was impassioned about the redemption of Africa: he aligned himself with the Colonization Society of America and the idea of a return to Africa of free African‐Americans. To this end, as a means of cutting off the slave trade at its source, Cuffee made two trips to Sierra Leone (see Sierra Leone settlers). To discuss his views on abolition and colonization with friends from the African Institution, Cuffee sailed to Britain, docking in Liverpool in 1811 Here and in London he met fellow abolitionists including the Duke of Gloucester who was president of the African ...
Cape Verde Islands and ship captain who sailed vessels from the insular colony to nearby West Africa, from Senegal to Sierra Leone. Nothing is known about his family. He was renowned because he was the only known black ship captain in early sixteenth-century Portugal and its colonies off the West African mainland. As a ship captain he had to have been educated, because ship captains had to know how to read and write in order to read navigational charts, and plot the ship’s course. Captain Antonio Fernandes is known to have been a Christian, because of his Christian names and high profession.
According to the Cape Verde customs receipt book of 1513–1516, Antonio Fernandes captained the ship Santa Crara from the Portuguese Cape Verde Islands to nearby West Africa. After trading there the vessel returned to the Cape Verde colony with captive Africans and provisions of rice. On 10 ...
some 300 miles (500 kilometers) off the coast of modern-day Senegal. Nothing is known about his family background; however, it is likely that, like most mulattos in the archipelago at that time, his mother was an enslaved black African and his father a free white Portuguese. His Christian names and the fact that he was free suggest he inherited his status from his Portuguese father. He traded merchandise from the Cape Verde colony with nearby West Africa. The reason for his renown is that his actions provide archival data on how Cape Verde colonists sailed to Africa and transported captive Africans, ivory, and food back to those islands. Most importantly, the historical record shows how the colonists declared human captives to the islands’ customs officers and then paid import duties on them.
On 6 February 1514 Joham Fernandes sailed into the customs house in Ribeira Grande Santiago Island capital ...
Erin D. Somerville
The first Englishman to transport African slaves across the Atlantic. The son of a sea merchant and Mayor of Plymouth, Hawkins inherited the family sea business after his father's death. After early voyages to the Canary Islands, he moved to London in 1560 to seek support for voyages to the West Indian colonies, then under tight Spanish control.
Hawkins's first slave trading voyage departed for the west coast of Africa in October 1562. Upon arrival in Upper Guinea, Hawkins raided Portuguese ships for African slaves and other merchandise. Three hundred slaves were brought to Hispaniola, where he illegally sold them to English planters. The financial gains of the expedition were so extensive that Queen Elizabeth I supported an equally profitable second voyage in 1564, which moved over 400 slaves from Sierra Leone. A third slaving voyage in 1567 also supported by the Queen was not as successful ...
Berkeley E. Tompkins
The San Francisco Chronicle described William Shorey in 1907 as “the only colored captain on the Pacific Coast.” He was born on the island of Barbados in 1859 and spent his childhood there. His father was a Scottish sugar planter on the Caribbean island, and his mother, Rosa Frazier, was a native Barbadian.
As the oldest of his mother's eight children it was necessary for Shorey to begin working at an early age. Although slavery had been abolished in Barbados several decades earlier, in 1834, opportunities for a young man like Shorey were still quite limited. He was apprenticed in his early teens to a plumber, but he found the drudgery of this job uncongenial. Strongly attracted to the sea, as were many young men raised on the island, Shorey said goodbye to his family in 1875 and shipped on a British vessel bound for Boston Massachusetts ...